Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Octavio Augusto, creator of the Roman Empire

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Octavio Augusto, creator of the Roman Empire
The heir of Julius Caesar knew how to play his cards well: he stood with all the power, but concealed his absolutism in the guise of representing the people. The great-nephew of Julius Caesar, Gaius Octavius ​​Turino was adopted by him as his son and heir. Then it was renamed Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian. With good Hellenized and endowed with great political skill education, he knew attract the friends and collaborators of Caesar to his cause, including Marco Antonio, right hand of the murdered dictator and who sealed a personal alliance (marrying Antonio with her ​​sister Octavia) and political, who eventually forged in the so - called "second triumvirate" with Marcus Lepidus, once defeated the murderers of Caesar. Since 36, Octavio was the owner of politics in the western part of the empire, especially since Marco Antonio was installed in the East, delivered to his affair with Cleopatra. This situation was exploited by Octavio to prepare the final confrontation, which occurred in 31 with the naval battle of Actium, and the support of most of the Roman army.

In 27, after the formal devolution of power to the Senate, he was awarded the title of Augustus , name that would retain until his death. He was gradually accumulating various positions with cloaking their real power, based on the imperium or supreme command of the Roman legions. Thus, besides Augustus, would be on imperator (generalissimo), prince, tribune of the plebs, consul several times, father of his country and Pontifex Maximus, qualifications awarded by a  Senate docile.

Glory of Rome
After consolidating the borders of the Empire with various expeditions, pacified Roman territory after nearly a century of civil wars and reorganized the provincial divisions, in addition to creating the administrative apparatus that would last more than three centuries. It also launched an extensive program of monumental buildings (hence the phrase, "I inherited a Rome brick and left another marble") and recovery of traditional virtues, from the back to the old ways, supporting the Latin classic (besides the Greek culture, which was well acquainted) and the creation of an artistic language clear sense of political propaganda.