Wednesday, September 30, 2015

The dark and sad story of the castrati

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The dark and sad story of the castrati
His story is quite dark and sad. We talked about the castrati. Origin, time 'golden' and end this savage tradition. His story is quite dark and sad. The castrati, "castrato" in the singular (from the Italian, meaning castrated), were singing children undergoing castration operation (in which the testicles are removed to not produce male sex hormones) to ensure that these retain their high-pitched voice when singing melodies.

Although the "golden" of the seventeenth century castrati was thanks to the tremendous success throughout Europe of opera and its characters, castration due to artistic purposes dates back even to the year 400 AD This date is regarded as the point of origin of castration with the idea of ​​promoting delicate voices like that of a woman with the physical presence of a man. In fact, the eunuchs acted as facilitators of emperors and empresses of the ancient Roman Empire with its delicate voices product such disabling of the genital tract.

The gelding with musical motifs continued to be practiced until the early eleventh century. At this time and because of the Fourth Crusade, again not knowing anything about the castrati until the sixteenth century. As the Pope himself had forbidden the presence of artists and female singers in churches or scenarios, fashion castrati returned to emerge stronger with increased public interest in opera. Thus, children were operated between 8 and 12 years-usually by a barber who drugged with opium to feel less pain incisión- and then educated in musical training.

According to the records preserved seventeenth century, at that time an average of 4,000 children a year are castrated the only one that managed to reach fame and become a real star. Many of these children were from families with low incomes. Among the most famous castrato Farinelli we quote, Baldassarre Ferri, Giacomo Casanova or Alessandro Moreschi, L'angelo di Roma, considered the last castrato (of a single audio document is preserved with this situation voice).

For those who managed to develop an adult penis -only if they had been operated after serving 10 years, his lack of sensitivity in sexual encounters and, therefore, the possibility of a longer erections, she became lovers nobility sought both for single and for married.

The purpose of this unfortunate tradition arrives when Pope Pius X in 1903 banning the practice of castration considering it "an abominable practice against human nature." As a result, women also joined the music scene so its presence began to fade slowly.

Far from this barbaric practice, current countertenor get the same sharp, feminine and delicate shade thanks to a natural technique development and their particular vocal apparatus.

Monday, September 21, 2015

Discovered an intact coffin of the seventeenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt

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Discovered an intact coffin of the seventeenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt
Egyptian civilization is a mystery. From its giant pyramids to the mummies, sphinxes, hieroglyphics and theological beliefs. A group of researchers from Djehuty Project, led from the Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), they have now discovered on the northern edge of the necropolis of Dra Abu el? Naga in Luxor (ancient Thebes), an intact coffin of a man called Neb, 1600 BC corresponding to the XVII dynasty of ancient Egypt.

Researchers have sensed that inside the chamber had found a coffin. In its day the entrance was sealed perfectly with adobe and since then no one had accessed the room. Like a discovery of Indiana Jones himself is involved, Neb body was found in a burial chamber carved into the rock to four meters deep. The coffin, two meters long and half a meter wide, is in good condition, bright colors and maintains its original decoration.

Within the small chamber carved into the rock has recovered a large anthropomorphic carved wooden casket and decorated in the characteristic style of the dynasty XVII, called "rishi" (meaning "wings" in Arabic). As detailed José Manuel Galán, director of Djehuty project, "for that reason, the coffin lid is painted in a pair of wings spread over the corpse, like a winged goddess embraced her from behind, thus giving protection in the beyond".

"This style of coffin is rare, as it was in use for only a short period of time, when Egypt was not unified. So, very few have been found in its original place and have been well documented in their archaeological context, "explains CSIC researcher. An inscription runs from chest to foot the coffin lid and directs an invocation offerings to a man named Neb. His mummy is still in the box and apparently in good condition.

This finding, along with others carried out in the same area, they confirm that Dra Abu el-Naga was where were buried the members of the royal family and their courtiers dynasty XVII, 1600. C. A little known period and at the same time, key to understanding the origin of the Egyptian empire, and the structure and functioning of the administration in the new capital city of Thebes.

 Why was it important to the XVII Dynasty?
Right in this historical period, still little known, the city of Thebes became the capital of the kingdom, and laid the foundations of the empire and the Egyptian rule over Palestine, Syria, and Nubia.La dynasty XVII is part of the historical period known by archaeologists as the Second Intermediate Period (between 1800 and 1550 BC), characterized by the hegemony of rulers of Syrian origin? Palestinian settled in the eastern Delta. At this time the monarchy did not control the whole territory and the effective power was in the hands of local governors.

In this period Thebes was the most important southern city and the dynasty XVI led the reconquest and the expulsion of the rulers of the north, unifying the country and sowing the seed of a new historic era in Egypt, the New Kingdom, the era of the great kings who would forge the Egyptian empire from his new capital, Thebes.

These findings allow to complete the puzzle of the work done during these years in the tombs of Djehuty, supervisor Treasury Queen Hatshepsut (1470 BC.), And Hery, courtier who lived about 50 years before royal scribe said.

About Djehuty own and Queen Hatshepsut, Beau himself explains his strange funerary behavior. "We discovered then that Djehuty, unlike the rest of the courtiers of his time, decided not to locate if his tomb near the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut. The Treasury preferred upper hill Dra Abu el? Naga, half a kilometer north, because that area was also special in that there lay members of the dynasty XVII "explains CSIC researcher.

Egyptian culture remains one of the most enigmatic of history. Of course, step by step and excavation after excavation archaeologists are unraveling its secrets through their tombs, hieroglyphics and buildings. And in this process the Spanish science is very present, mainly through Djehuty Project.

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Northern men in fiction

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Northern men in fiction
Either with humor, narrative, informative or advertising purpose, the image of the Viking people still used to have enormous appeal to the general public. Like many other civilizations, the Viking people left written records of its history, which served as the basis for the development of later novels featuring them. However, unlike what happens with other peoples and times, the Vikings have not received much attention in the historical novel, which also may have contributed to the prevalence of the topic of reality.

If we speak of classic texts, then it must refer to sagas like Erik the Red, the Nial or Ragnar Trousers Hairy (perhaps the most media Viking, because his figure carries not only the current television series but also, focusing on his final years, the film The Vikings, shot by Richard Fleischer in 1958), all written between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Spanish and available in annotated editions maintained that facilitate the understanding of the times and customs.

In modern literature, works of writers like JRR Tolkien or Robert E. Howard not spared from intense Viking influence, but if we want books specially devoted to them, the most famous is certainly the Red Orm, written by Frans Gunnar Swedish Bengtsson and published in two volumes in 1941 and 1945, which tells the warrior raids both protagonist and the uses of everyday life in his village.

In more recent times it highlights the work of the English Bernard Cornwell, a prolific author of stories set in different historic periods, which has lasted eight novels of the saga that began with Northumbria, which tells the Viking invasion of England in the time of King Alfred through Uhtred adventures, character with a foot between the two civilizations. Nor can forget the trilogy Raven, Giles Kristian, who has won praise from Cornwell own; and, as a curiosity, we should mention that the author of romance novels Joanna Fulford, who died in 2013, also included among his extensive literary and romantic production a trilogy set in the Viking world, with passion, not just warrior.

The conspiracy against the Order of the Temple

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The Knights Templar, founded in 1119 to protect pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem after the First Crusade, had accumulated enormous prestige and power
The Knights Templar, founded in 1119 to protect pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem after the First Crusade, had accumulated enormous prestige and power. However, in the early fourteenth century the Muslims had expelled the Crusaders from the Holy Land, so that its main mission -the places- Saints defense was compromised. The papacy responded by proposing the unification of the various military orders, in order to regain strength and try to launch a new crusade to recapture. But this did not occur; the Christian kingdoms were involved in internal problems, while the Templars rejected the drive for fear of denatured, which alienated them to carry out their commitment to Rome to support the reconquest of the Holy Land.

The real problem was that the Temple had become an autonomous state within the Christian kingdoms. They had important treasures, the result of numerous donations they received, did not pay taxes, sported important positions in the courts and, in addition, only obeyed the pope. His power was particularly important in France, kingdom of which came most of his knights and where most treasured wealth. Therefore they had become a serious obstacle to plans to strengthen the power of the king of France, Felipe IV. The French crown was heavily in debt for over fifty years with the Order, because it had borrowed huge amount had to pay to rescue Louis IX, when he was jailed following the failure of the Seventh Crusade, and the same Felipe IV had returned to ask for money to fund its expansive policy. Certainly, if the Templars disappeared, the debt would be extinguished and reinforced the power of the monarch.

Therefore the King of France undertook the task of preparing an entire conspiracy to destroy the Temple, accusing the worst crime: heresy. Counting on the treacherous aid of former military Order of the Templar, the French monarch produced a series of invented heretical practices that would run the Temple, in order to discredit him before all Christendom and to achieve, by the way, the essential collaboration of Pope Clement V, for he alone had full jurisdiction over the Knights of the Cross.

The list of alleged heresies and aberrations was based both outright lies, distortions and domestic rituals of the Order. The result is that accused them of denying Christ, of spitting on the cross, sodomy, of worshiping an idol, necromancers and all sorts of disgusting habits designed to impress the population. He had orchestrated a smear campaign all with the sole purpose of justifying their destruction.

Meanwhile, in June 1306, the Temple, oblivious to the whole conspiracy was afoot, rejected the papal request to unify the military command, which entered its relations crisis. A year later, on October 12, 1307, the King of France, after carefully prepare all specifications false charges, he proceeded to arrest throughout the country and on the same day to 141 Templars and confiscate all their assets. Immediately they underwent an inquisitorial process, which meant that they suffered torture or were threatened with them with the aim that confess the crimes they were accused.

Obviously, many admitted the charges against him by terror, beginning with the same Grand Master Jacques de Molay. Around the Gallic country he was mortally wounded.




A pontiff coerced
However, although estranged from the Temple and pressure from Philip IV, Pope Clement V felt disowned by it, as only he could act against the Templars. For this reason it established a commission of inquiry as he ordered all the Christian kingdoms in the arrest of members of the Order, while prohibiting torture.

The fact that several kingdoms, such as Aragon and England, not acatasen immediately and zealously mandated test that few believed truthful accusations of the French monarch.

When the papal delegation arrived in France, all the defendants retracted their confessions saying they had been extracted under torture, so that Clement V in person decided to take the investigation. Angry, the king of France fought reiterating accusations with false witnesses, but the pope insisted on leading the process of the main defendants, finally absolving them.

Philip IV was not willing to release the prey and France forced the Church to continue the process. To do this, they accused the Templars who had already recanted those who had spoken in his defense of relapsed heretics, which meant death by fire.

Sentenced to dissolve
In October 1311 began the council to decide the fate of the Temple. In him they could not prove the charges against the Order, but the pressures of the king were so strong that Clement V, although not condemned, he was forced to dissolve. The assets of the Temple were transferred to the Hospital or, in the case of Spain, other new orders were founded. The Templars who had could continue living normally, but had confessed that at first they were convicted.

The king wanted to eradicate all traces of the Order and this should eliminate their leaders, beginning with the Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, and three more commanders who were imprisoned in Paris. In March 1314 they were told his life sentence. In a burst of dignity, loudly they proclaimed his innocence and the falsity of the allegations. Faced with such a show of contempt, they pierced the Cardinals sentencing the Pope, but Felipe IV went ahead and sent to the stake 36 Molay and other leading Templars. The criminal plot had succeeded: the French king consolidated his power, saw its huge debt extinguished and owner of much of the wealth of the Temple was made.

The dramatic end of the Templars and the sort of accusations were poured over them, he has given rise to the legend that has remained until today, reaching several esoteric groups that heirs of his legacy proclaim appear.

Discovery of a great megalithic monuments near Stonehenge

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But what occupied this huge circle of stones? Experts estimate that it should be a natural amphitheater dedicated to rituals of some kind, raised more than 4,500 years ago
Buried one meter deep and five times higher than Stonehenge, it could be prehistoric fort longest ever found. It has been found by a group of British archaeologists Stonehenge in Wiltshire (southern England), about three kilometers from the mythical place of ritual worship of Stonehenge. It is a row of gigantic monoliths 100 distributed in the form of semicircle on the edge of a valley, some 4, 5 meters high and about 400 years preceding the megalithic.

Most of the stones, which are down for unknown reasons, were surrounded by a trench 17.6 meters wide. "We do not see anything like this anywhere in the world. It is something completely new and its scale is extraordinary, "said the archaeologist Vince Gaffney, head of the research project at the University of Bradford.

But what occupied this huge circle of stones? Experts estimate that it should be a natural amphitheater dedicated to rituals of some kind, raised more than 4,500 years ago, although at the moment it is not known how long remained standing. To achieve appreciate the full extent of the new circle, archaeologists have created a virtual reconstruction. Ensure that at least 30 blocks have stood intact over time underground.

The discovery, according to its leaders, opens a fabulous gateway to knowledge of the Neolithic culture in the British Isles. "Everything that has been written about Stonehenge landscape and ancient monuments that houses will have to be rewritten," concluded Paul Garwood, an archaeologist at the University of Birmingham participant in the project.

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Leonardo Da Vinci as a scientist

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Leonardo Da Vinci as a scientist
Behind every act of his life, even the most everyday (like watching the flight of a bird) was looking for a physical, mathematical or other explanation. It does not always hit, but many others. And with centuries ahead. During the winter of 1507-1508, Leonardo conducted a post-mortem dissection of an old centennial in the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence. This marked the beginning of five years of intense anatomical research. He attributed the death of that individual to a narrowing of the coronary arteries and, in parallel, provided the first clear description of atherosclerosis, a disease of the coronary arteries is now one of the most common causes of death in the Western world.

Working with human bodies in Florence allowed Leonardo to study the brain, as he had always wanted. Before that, the Renaissance artist had deduced the path of the sensory nerves and the brain studying how human skulls. He believed that acquiring knowledge was key to some of the issues I wanted to investigate, as the emotions and the nature of the senses, but no real brain to dissect the skulls alone could not provide that information. With corpses at your fingertips, Leonardo designed an ingenious experiment in which melted wax injected into the cerebral ventricles to find out what their true setting.

Da Vinci was able to understand some basic concepts about how our mind works. Among other things, he argued that "common sense (which resides in the brain) judges of the things that the other senses and transmit it into action by them. External objects sent to the five senses its images, which are transferred to the sensitivity and perception, and this common sense; and, after being examined here, they pass memory that retains more or less, depending on the power of each. " The article refers to woman who kept researching, Elena Sanz. More information on this topic in the number of very dedicated history to the biography of Leonardo Da Vinci.

Nominated dictators for the Nobel Peace Prize

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Nominated dictators for the Nobel Peace Prize
These bloodthirsty were proposed to receive from the hands of the Nordic Academy corresponding Nobel Peace Prize. Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin and Benito Mussolini three spare recognizable names in the travel of the twentieth century for their horrific actions were curiously proposed to receive from the hands of the Nordic Academy corresponding Nobel Peace Prize, the most prestigious award for world peace.

When these three despots were given the award for his "peaceful" mind ran turbulent times in Europe. In fact, Stalin was nominated in 1945 and 1948, and the argument for his proposal was based on the "courageous" attitude of the Russian president to end World War II. Years before, in 1938, the bloodthirsty Hitler had been proposed with a nomination by a member of the Swedish Academy, named Brant, antifascist declared that with that unlikely proposal intended to create controversy among Swedish parliamentarians and satirical review the situation policy that existed in Europe in the thirties succeeded. In the case of "leads" Mussolini was a candidate in 1935 and the idea of ​​proposing the award went to the faculty of the University of Giessen (Germany).

Transmitted nominations autocrats such characters, the committee of the Swedish Government did not consider worthy of such an award to any of these three historical figures that many crimes have left behind.

6 curious anecdotes about Albert Einstein

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6 curious anecdotes about Albert Einstein
Taciturn. Little Einstein gave no early signs of genius. In fact, he was slow in learning to speak, was a taciturn child behavior, and instead of playing with peers, tended to walk thoughtfully and daydreaming.

The compass. One of the first moments of his life was astonished to discover a magnetic compass from his father when he was four or five years. Watch the needle always pointed in the same direction left him fascinated.

Democrat. The scientific ideal of democracy was Einstein, who in his book "My ideas and opinions" defined as "That respect each man as an individual and not any of them becomes an idol". As for the money believed that "only appeals to selfishness and irresistibly invites abuse."

The Einstein refrigerator. Besides theoretical physicist, Einstein was inventor. One of its most interesting creations was a type of refrigerator, which decided to make after hearing that a family living in Berlin died to break the seal of the home refrigerator and release all their toxic gases. Einstein wanted the new not have parts that could break, it was more secure, eliminating the pump used to compress the refrigerant. And he created the Einstein-Szilard pump based on electromagnetism. And he was silent and emissions test.

Violinist. Einstein was fond of two things: sailing navigation and music. He played the violin, and it seems that the connection between this instrument and science met her thanks to Pythagoras, one of the first scientists who studied acoustics, and also created taut strings with sliding bridges, the foundation of the current violin.

The latest missive. The last letter Einstein wrote, dated April 11, 1955, was addressed to philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell to accept the final form of the document later known as the "Russell-Einstein Manifesto," in which he called for a conference to study the dangers of the arms race and warned that there was "a very real danger of extermination of the human race by dust and radioactive rain clouds" and that the only "hope for humanity is to avoid war."

10 historical curiosities of toilet paper

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10 historical curiosities of toilet paper
1. Elena Sanz
lettuce, rags, furs, grass, leaves, coconut or corn: toilet-paper-story 1. Before the invention of toilet paper used different materials. The ancient Greeks aseaban with pieces of clay and stones, while the Romans were served sponge tied to a stick and soaked in salt water. For its part, the Inuit chose moss in summer and snow in winter, and for the people of coastal areas the solution came from the shells and algae.

2. The first to create and use toilet paper were the Chinese, who in the second century BC and they designed a paper whose main use was the intimate toilet. Several centuries later (back in the sixteenth century), Chinese paper sheets notable for its large size (half a meter wide and 90 centimeters high). Surely these blades were in line with the hierarchical position of its users: the emperors themselves and their courtiers.

3. Personal hygiene classes were well defined. The ancient Romans used the wealthy classes wool well soaked in rose water, while the French royalty used no less than lace and silk. The hemp leaf was the most international of the materials used by the rich and powerful.

4. Joseph C. Gayetty was the first to commercialize the toilet paper back in 1857. The product consisted primeval sheets of paper moistened with aloe, called "medical role of Gayetty" a real treat for the more hedonistic. The new product, prohibitive price, marketed under a visionary slogan: "the greatest need of our era, the role of Gayetty medicinal bath".

5. In 1880 the brothers Edward and Clarence Scott begin to market the rolled paper we know today. A debut full of obstacles given the many taboos surrounding the new product. By the time it was considered immoral and pernicious role in shops were exposed to public view in general.

6. But the role of the origins was not soft and absorbent product today. In 1935 an improved under the claim of "free paper chips" toilet paper is thrown. This makes us conclude that the usual time was that the toilet paper will feature some other impurity.

7. The importance of toilet paper nowadays is unquestionable witness of this is the recognition received by Kimberly-Clark in 1944 by the Government of the United States. The reason for such recognition was (quote verbatim)? His heroic efforts in providing soldiers during World War II ?.

8. This became strategic importance in Operation Desert Storm in the Gulf War. Green US tanks too contrasted with the white sands of the desert and had no time to paint vehicles. We chose to wrap the tank in toilet paper as camouflage technique last minute.

9. From a reviled and sold discreetly in the back room product, toilet paper has become the protagonist of fashion shows, art and delicate work of origami. Renowned artists as Christo, Yuken Teruya Anastassia Elias or toilet paper used as material for their work. In the field of fashion, the event is celebrated Cheap Chic Weddings Toilet Paper Wedding Dress Contest, which gathers in the United States to the most original bridal dresses made of toilet paper.

10. The toilet paper as we know it today has experienced great development over the nearly 140 years that have elapsed since its invention. A double layer paper (built in 1942) leading technologies that provide greater softness and absorbency (as UCTAD, developed and patented by Kimberly-Clark) are added. The latest product innovation involves incorporating butter lotion, a natural fruit with recognized cosmetic properties.

Thursday, September 3, 2015

The propaganda tricks of power

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The propaganda tricks of power
Lies and misrepresentation have been used by all the powerful to conspire for their interests, creating campaigns to influence public opinion to the point of changing attitudes and values. Writers, artists and politicians have put their talents to empires and states to promote the patriotic spirit among the people and influence their emotions. By propaganda, nations have adjusted the history of their own interests. The writings of Julius Caesar on his conquest of Gaul are an important legacy of Latin literature, but also a good example of propaganda text. He wrote his war campaigns in third person, highlighting the aspects that favored her figure and that best highlighted the magnificence of the Roman Empire.

The first historical document in which the word "propaganda" appears is 1622, when Pope Gregory XV established the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith of the Roman Catholic Church). Thus a papal propaganda office was established to coordinate the efforts of the Counter against Lutheranism. Protestant nations were not far behind.

Throughout history, nations have sought collusion with the media to hide their shameful policies. In 1898, the US government sent the battleship Maine in Havana in order to intimidate Spain, which rejected the US proposal to buy Cuba and Puerto Rico. At 21:40 on 15 February of that year, the Maine blew up and about 260 men, including two officers died. The rest of the officers at that hour was enjoying the dance that the Spanish authorities had organized in his honor.

The article refers to the art of manipulating, Fernando Cohnen. More information on the subject in the 65th Story Very dedicated to the Great Conspiracies of History. If you want to get this issue, request or download it to suscripciones@gyj.es through the iPad app in the App Store. You can also purchase it from Zinio or Kiosk and More.. And if you want to receive each month the magazine very interesting in your mailbox, enters our space Subscriptions.

Wednesday, September 2, 2015

The bombing of Maine, US battle for Cuba

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The bombing of Maine, US battle for Cuba
In 1911 the remains of the Maine was sunk and the history of Cuba and Spain changed forever. Since 1895, Spain was at war with the Cuban insurgents. The Madrid government clung tightly to the last large colony of America, not in vain was the first world producer of sugar and there is taxes collected reported to government coffers than any region of the Peninsula. From the military point of view, the race was far from decided and Spain had sent 212,000 soldiers ready to defend its sovereignty. Meanwhile, a few kilometers away, the United States hoped the victory of the Cuban independence forces.

For decades, Americans were eager to incorporate Cuba into its territory and, on several occasions, had been raised to Spain their desire to buy the island. They knew, as so happened that an independent Cuba easily fall under their influence, which spared no support for the secessionist cause. Moreover, from the very outbreak of the war, they had not stopped sending more or less openly arms and ammunition to the rebels, while his press launched constant smear campaigns against the Spanish army and authorities, with the clear aim to inflame public opinion and predispose it in favor of a military intervention against the separatists and Spain.

The perfect excuse
However, he lacking a clear excuse, a casus belli to give arguments to the US to declare war. And that came into play timely bombing of Maine. At the request of the US consul in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee, who was an ardent supporter of intervention in the island, he was sent to the port city the battleship Maine. On the morning of 25 January 1898, and only a few hours after communicate to Spain, the ship docked at the port. Officially he arrived in courtesy, but no one escaped him that the reason was simply to put pressure on the Spanish authorities to abandon the island, as well as having one foot in Cuba at what could happen. The Americans did not want a possible sudden the separatist victory would surprise no military presence without intervention capacity. At the same time, the US fleet in the Pacific and Florida were ordered to arm themselves and prepare for military action, warning that something bigger was preparing. During the following weeks he reigned inactivity and even thought Washington was inclined to withdraw the vessel from Cuba, to which the consul Lee strongly opposed.

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

How did the Second World War?

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How did the Second World War?
Up to that first attack was a long journey of tension between the powers. The end of this conflict is known worldwide, ended when, how, and who were its protagonists, but how did it start? The official date was 1 September 1939, but up to that first attack, was a long journey of tension between the powers one, tug of war that lasted for years until he finally broke the spark. After signing the Munich agreement (29 September 1938), by which the Sudeten Germany, Britain and France annexed confident that the warlike aspirations appease Hitler, but nothing is further from reality.

In a few days he began the evacuation of Czechoslovakia and German troops were taking control of their new territories. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French President Edouard Daladier, returned in triumph to their respective countries with the idea that there would be no war. But Hitler, who had a vocation of conqueror and not a diplomat, had other ideas in mind.

On August 23th 1939, to everyone's surprise, the Soviet Union (USSR) and Nazi Germany decided to put aside their many differences and join forces. It entered into force on Ribbentrop-Molotov pact by which both powers agreed not to attack each other mutually. In addition, the agreement included the division of Eastern Europe between the two powers. Germany, having no enemies on the Russian front, on August 26 decided to invade Poland. Immediately Britain signed with Poland on mutual defense, and the invasion was delayed. But not for long. SS heated environment simulating an alleged attack by Polish troops to a radio antenna, and thus got a reason to justify its invasion.

On 1 September 1939 the Germans began the first attack on a Polish city. Wileun They bombed without mercy, destroying 75% of the region and killing without distinction between military and civilian. Here began, officially, the Second World War.