Tuesday, December 9, 2014

1874-1937, GUGLIELMO MARCONI

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1874-1937, GUGLIELMO MARCONI
From a wealthy family, Guglielmo Marconi was born in 1874 in Bologna, Italy. This radio inventor private education from a teacher. In 1894 when the age of twenty, Marconi read a book about the experiments conducted by Heinrich Hertz few years earlier. These experiments clearly demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves are invisible to the eye, moving through the air at the speed of sound.

Marconi then intrigued by the idea that these waves can be used to send signs across long distances without passing the wire that provides many possibilities for the development of communication that can not be reached telegram. For example, in this way news can be sent to ships at sea.

In 1895, only a year of hard work, Marconi succeeded in producing the necessary equipment. In 1896 he demonstrated his discovery tool in the UK and obtained his first patent for this invention. Marconi rushed founded the company and "Marconi" was first delivered in 1898. The next year he was already able to send news without passing the wire crossing the English Channel.

Although the most important patent obtained in 1900, Marconi continue the manufacture and patenting many improvements in on the basis of his own discovery. In 1901 he managed to send a radio message across the Atlantic Ocean, from England to Newfoundland.

The significance of his new invention dramatically illustrated in 1909 when the SS Republic damaged by collision and sank to the seabed. Radio news very helpful, all passengers can be saved except six people. In the same year Marconi won the Nobel Prize for his discovery. And the following year he managed to send a radio message from Ireland to Argentina, a distance of more than 6000 miles.

All these news are sent through signs Marconi code system. As is known, the sound can be transmitted by radio, but this can only be done around 1915. Radio broadcasting in new commercial scale started early in the 20s, but the popularity and importance is growing very rapidly.

An invention patent rights have high prices by itself give rise to a conflict in court. However, various demands through the courts wither vanished after 1914 when the court recognizes the rights of Marconi. In the following year, Marconi conduct investigations also important in the field of short-wave and microwave communications. He breathed his last in Rome in 1937.

Besides Marconi became famous as the inventor, it is also clear undoubted influence in terms of the importance of radio and matters relating to it. Marconi did not find a television. However, the invention of radio is an important pacesetter for television, because it is seemly Marconi has also share in the development of television.

Clearly, wireless communication has very important meaning in the modern world. This is very useful for the delivery of news, for entertainment, for military purposes, for scientific investigation, for police duties, and other purposes. Although for some things telegram (which already found the more than half a century before) arguably has usability as well, the use of radio massively to not really stay. He can be reached cars, ships at sea, aircraft were airborne, and even spaceships. Clearly a more important invention than teleponn because the news can also be sent via phone sent via radio, besides radio messages can be sent to places that can not be achieved phone.

Marconi had a higher order in the list of this blog than Graham Bell purely wireless communication since the invention is more important than the telephone. I placed Edison slightly higher in the order of this list than Marconi because a large number of discoveries that have been done, even though none of it that surpass the importance of radio. Because radio and television is only a small part of the practical use of the theoretical work of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell, Marconi is fair if the order should be placed in slightly lower than both. At the same time it is also clear that a small number of political figures who had a major influence on the world as it belongs to Marconi, because it's worth anyway he was placed on a fairly high position in this list.

PLATO, 427 BC-347 BC

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PLATO, 427 BC-347 BC
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato became the forerunner of the Western political philosophers and once the master of ethics and metaphysics their thoughts. Its opinions in this field has been read widely over 2300 years. Plato like a founding father for Western thinkers,

Plato was born of the family of the famous Athens circa 427 BC. In adolescence he became acquainted with the famous philosopher Socrates who became a teacher and best friend. The year 399 BC, when Socrates seventy years old, he was dragged to court with baseless accusations do jerk and deprave young generation Athens. Socrates was condemned, sentenced to death. Execution of Socrates - Plato called "the wisest, most honest, best of all human beings that I have ever known" - makes Plato hate to democratic governance.

Shortly after the death of Socrates, Plato left Athens and for ten-twelve years wandering where feet carry.

Around the year 387 BC he returned to Athens, establishing universities there, an academy which runs more than 900 years. Plato spent the rest of his life that forty years in Athens, teaches and writes about philosophy. Famous pupil, Aristotle, who became pupil academy at the age of seventeen, while Plato's time was already treading the age of sixty years. Plato closed eye at the age of seventy.

Plato wrote no less than thirty-six books, mostly concerning the political and ethical issues aside metaphysics and theology. Of course, impossible to summarize the contents of all the books in just a few sentences. But, at the risk of simplifying thoughts, I want to try also summarize the main points politiknya.yang ideas presented in the famous book, Republic, which represents the thoughts of the people who thinks the ideal form.

The best form of a government, Plato suggested, is held by the government of the aristocracy. What is meant here instead aristocrat aristocrat who measured dose of quality, which is the government that is driven by the son of the best and wisest in the country. These people should be chosen not through sound tax residents but through the process of collective decision. People who have become members of the ruling or the so-called "guardian" should add that equal those solely on the basis of quality.

Plato believed that for everyone, whether he is male or female, must be provided the opportunity showed his skills as a member of "guardian". Plato was the first major philosopher, and for a long time in fact it was just her, which proposes equality of opportunity regardless of gender. To prove the equality provision of chance, Plato suggested that the growth and education of children is managed by the state. Children must first acquire a thorough physical exercise, but in terms of music, math and other academic disciplines should not be ignored. At some stage, extensive tests have to be held. They are less developed should be given the opportunity to participate and engage in economic activities, while those who developed should continue and receive training. The addition of this education must include not only the usual academic subjects, but also steeped in the philosophy of Plato referred to examine the metaphysical doctrine of the ideal form of ideology.

At the age of thirty-five years, these people who had been really convincing able to demonstrate mastery in the field of basic theories, must undergo additional training again for fifteen years, which must include working for practical experience. Only those who are able to demonstrate that they can realize the real work in the form of books that are studied can be classified into "guardian class." Moreover, only those who could clearly. shows that the main interest is to serve the interests of society that can be accepted into. "guardian class."

Membership guardian does not in itself attract public attention. Therefore, so the guardian is not much to get money. They are only allowed to have a limited amount of personal property and should not have any land for private homes. They receive a certain salary and fixed (it was in the amount that is not how), and not allowed to have gold or silver. Members are not allowed to have a family guardian separate place, they have to eat at the same time, have the pair together. Rewards for-frontman frontman philosophers instead of wealth, but satisfaction in serving the public interest. That sum an ideal republic, according to Plato.

Republic reads widely for centuries. But it should be noted, the political system which is recommended in it has never actually practiced as a model for any government. During the period between the time of Plato until now, European countries generally adopts a kingdom. In recent centuries some countries adopt a democratic form of government. There are also embracing system of military rule, or under tyrannical demagogue such as Hitler and Mussolini. None of these governments have a similarity with Plato's ideal republic. Plato's theory has never been a fad any political party, or be the basis of political movements such as occurs in the teachings of Karl Marx, whether we can thus conclude that the work of Plato, although discussed with respect, in fact completely excluded people in practice? I think not.

True, none of the civilian government in Europe propped on Plato models directly. However, there are amazing similarities between the position of the Catholic church in the middle of the century Europe "guardian class" Plato. Medieval Catholic Church consists of the elite who defend themselves so as not to wither and marginalized, whose members receive formal philosophical exercises. In principle, all men, regardless of where the origin may have been entered clergy (though not for women). Also, in principle, the pastor did not have family and is directed solely so that they focus on their own group, rather than lust majesty praised.

The role of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union is also nothing to compare it with the "guardian class" Plato he had the ideal republic. Here, too, we find that all of the elite group trained with the official philosophy.

Plato also affect the structure of the US government. Many members of the American constitutional convention to know and be familiar with the political ideas of Plato. He meant, of course, that the Constitution of the United States opened the possibility of digging and affect the will of the people. And it is also desirable as a means of selecting the wisest and kindest to govern the country.

Difficulties in determining the significance of the influence of Plato all time - despite extensive and spread - is complicated and is not directly exposed. In addition to his political theory, the discussion in the field of ethics and metaphysics has influenced many philosophers who came later. If Plato placed at slightly lower than Aristotle in the list today, it is mainly because Aristotle was not only a philosopher but also an important scientist. In contrast, higher order placement Plato than thinkers like John Locke, Thomas Jefferson and Voltaire, why because the writings political affairs affecting the world only within the past two or three centuries, while Plato has a range of more than twenty-three centuries.

1632-1723 ANTONY VAN LEEUWENHOEK

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1632-1723
Inventors germs Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, the Netherlands. He comes from the middle family and almost all his life to be employed by the municipality in which the position is not so important.

Leeuwenhoek's discovery was another great result peered through the glass microscope hobby. At that time, of course, people can not just run to the store and buy a microscope, because it Leeuwenhoek made itself. He is not a professional lens polisher and have never been able to special education in the field. Even so, the expertise developed very extraordinary, far beyond the professional custom at that time.

Although the device has found the microscope before Leeuwenhoek was born, he did not use it. Instead, carefully and precisely he rubbed small lens. Leeuwenhoek microscope capable of producing power of observation which has much better than existing microscopes. One of the lenses that they have the capacity to raise about 270 times, there is even a sign that he managed to create a more perfect than that.

Leeuwenhoek had extreme patience and a keen observer, had a sharp vision and curiosity infinite. With lenses are so small that he examined various objects, from hair to dog sperm, from raindrops to small insects. Also fibers, the skin and various other objects. He made meticulous notes and making detailed sketches of each what he observes.

Commencing in 1673 and onward, Leeuwenhoek always in a relationship with "The Royal Society of England" a leading scientific institution in that era.

Although he had no background of higher education (only primary school and only know one language, Dutch), he was elected a member of the scientific institution in 1680. He was also a member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris.

Leeuwenhoek twice married, had six children but no grandchildren. Good health, they can work hard in the end-end. Visited many famous figures, including the Russian Czar Peter the Great, and the Queen of England. She's final breath also in Delft in 1723 at the age of 90 years.

Leeuwenhoek perform many important discoveries. He was the first to describe the spermatozoa (1677), and is one of the first outlines of red blood and white blood. He opposed the theory of spontaneous generation of simple shapes darikehidupan and exposes a lot of evidence to the contrary. He was able to show, for example, that small animals wingless blood eaters breed in a manner similar to winged insects.

Ultimate discovery emerged in 1674 when he made the first studies to germs. This is one of the great inventions of semen which resulted in the enrichment of human history. At the point that little water Leeuwenhock find an entirely new world, completely unpredictable world, full of life. Although not yet realized, this new world has very important significance to mankind. Indeed, "very small microscopic objects" that are observed is often an important factor both for the power of life and death of a man. Once it has been examined, could Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria in various different places: in the well and in the puddles, in the rain, in the mouth and intestines to the human anus. He described the various forms of bacteria, protozoa and also calculate size.

The use of a great invention Leeuwenhoek did not start until the arrival of the Pasteur nearly two centuries later. The fact is, the whole object of microbiological problems practically no activity until the 19th century when an enhanced microscope developed. One might question the Leeuwenhock suppose never born into the world and its findings did not occur until the 19th century, may have made little difference to the progress of science. However, there is no denial that Leeuwenhoek who discovered bacteria, and through him the world of science became aware of his presence.

Leeuwenhoek is often regarded as a lucky person who happened to slip on important scientific discoveries. It is far from the truth. The discovery of micro-organisms it is a normal result of the fabrication microscope careful with unparalleled quality with the existing time and patience and accuracy as a researcher. In other words, the findings are the result of a combination of skill and hard work, the opposite and has nothing to do with a fortune.

The discovery of these bacteria is an important scientific discoveries made by individual rare. Leeuwenhoek really work alone. The discovery of protozoa and bacteria can not help anyone-not the case in most of the progress in the field of biology - and instead of a natural growth of prior biological knowledge. This factor, along with the importance of the use of his invention, which makes it a high place in the order of this blog list.

1847-1931 THOMAS ALPHA EDISON

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1847-1931 EDISON
Versatile inventor Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847 in Milan, Ohio, United States. Only three years of formal education he received, after it he was kicked out of school because the school considers this kid so stupid.

His first creation, electronic sound recording made when she was twenty-one years. Her work was not sold. After that he earned the manufacture of equipment that are expected to be able to be sold in the market, shortly after he managed to make an electronic voice recorder, he discovered and perfected the telegraph machine that automatically prints the letter, which sold for 40,000 dollars, a huge amount at that time. After that, he queued like finding new work and in a short time Edison was not only famous but also rich. Perhaps, the most original inventions are patented machine LPs in 1877. However, more famous in the world of it is the development of a practical incandescent light bulb in 1879.

Edison was not the first to create a system of electric lighting. A few years earlier lamp with an electric current has been used for lighting street lamps in Paris. However, following the Edison incandescent bulb power-sharing system developed allows for a practical electric lighting in the home. In 1882, the company began producing electricity for homes in New York, and in a short time has spread throughout the world.

With the establishment of the first electric company for lighting homes, Edison means already laid the groundwork for the development of large industry. The use of electric power is not just for illumination but for all aspects of household needs, ranging from televisions to washing machines. Furthermore, the usefulness of electricity through distribution networks established Edison itself encouraged the use of electricity for the industrial sector.

Edison also made a major contribution remarkable for the development of film cameras and projectors. He made important improvements phone (carbon transmitter improve the clarity of hearing), improvements in the field of telegraph, and typewriter. Among other inventions include a dictation machine, coffee machine and a battery-driven storage. Arguably, Edison designing more than 1,000 inventions, an amount that is truly absurd.

One very surprising because productivity is due at the beginning of his career he built a laboratory investigation in Menlo Park, New Jersey. That's where he brought together a group that is capable of helping maker. It is the forerunner of a laboratory investigation later imitated by so many industries. Edison beginner modern laboratory, a center that is fully equipped investigation where so many people work with a team, is also an important result of his work, though of course something that he can not patented.

Edison is not a mere inventor; He was also involved in organizing various fabrication and industrial companies. The most important of which eventually transformed into the General Electric Company.

Although the carriage he was not a pure scientist, Edison make a scientific discovery. In 1882 he discovered that in a state approaching a vacuum, electric current can be flowed between the two wires are not touching each other. This phenomenon - called Edison's invention - not only has an important theoretical purpose, but also has practical use meaningful sense. This lead to the development of vacuum tubes and the foundation of the electronics industry.

Almost all my lifetime, Edison suffered from weak hearing. But, even so, he is more than able to overcome it with hard work awesome. Edison married twice (his first wife died young), has three children from each wife. He died in 1931 in West Orange, New Jersey.

There is no disagreement about the talent Edison. Everyone agreed that he was the great inventor of genius who ever lived. Rows of his findings are very useful considered shocking and make knee shivering, although it may be partly developed by others within thirty years. However, if we consider his personal discoveries, would appear to us that none of it has a decisive significance. For example, an incandescent bulb, although widely used, is not irreplaceable items in the modern world. The evidence suggests, lighting comes from radiation and scattered out in the form of light, which works on the basis of scientific principles are completely different, is also widely used by people, and in our daily lives not make any difference if we do not use incandescent light bulbs at all. Indeed, before the use of electric lighting, candles, oil lamps, and gas lamps already generally regarded as satisfactory lighting levels.

LPs tool is an ingenious invention, but nobody considers that the tool has been able to change our daily lives as well as the role that served the radio, television or telephone. Furthermore, in recent years, it has to be created sound recording device with an entirely different method, such as a magnetic tape cassette. And if there is no machine LPs, it was not anything. Many of Edison's patents relating to the improvement of equipment, have actually been discovered by someone else first, even in the form that had been made. Improvements in this - although much help - can not be regarded as an important meaning in the series of historical movements in general.

However, although none of the findings Edison-shattering importance, is also useful to remember that he did not just create a tool, but more than a thousand. On the basis of this consideration I put Edison higher than such illustrious inventor Guglielmo Marconi and Alexander Graham Bell.

1723-1790 ADAM SMITH

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1723-1790 ADAM SMITH
Leading figures in the field of economic development theory, Adam Smith, was born in the town of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, in 1723. When teenager he studied at Oxford University, and from 1751 until 1764 he became a professor at the University of Glasgow.

Over there he published his first book, Theory of Moral Sentiments, which lifted him into the middle of the intellectual community. However, the peak of his fame rests mainly on his masterpiece book The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. The book is an immediate success and seize the market, and the rest live Smith enjoyed fame and recognition thanks to the work. He died also in Kirkcaldy in 1790. No children he had, anyway never married.

Adam Smith was not the first to devote themselves to the economic theory, and many well-known ideas are not original out of his head. However, he was the first to present a systematic economic theory and easy to digest which is quite appropriate as the basis for the advancement of the field opposite it in the future. On the basis of that reason, it is worth considered that The Wealth of Nations is the starting base of the modern study of political economy.

One of the major results were presented this book is because he straightened and dispel the notion that a role model various people before. Smith an argument against the old theory of economic and trade which emphasizes the importance of the need for the country has gold bullion supplies in bulk. Similarly, the book rejects the view of the Physiocrats who say that the land is the main source of value. Instead Smith emphasized the most important subject is labor. Smith stressed that the persistent increase in production can be achieved through the division of labor, and he attacked the exhausted all government regulations and interference following outdated barriers that hinder the development and expansion of the industry.

The central idea of The Wealth of Nations is a free market that moves according to the market mechanism automatically thinks can produce many kinds and quantities of goods of the most favored and necessary consumer society. For example, inventories are actually favored degenerate, by itself the price will rise and this price increase will bring much benefit for anyone who produce it. Because fortunately many, other factories moved to produce well. As a result of the increase in production can not be rid of the state of shortage of goods. Moreover, the increase in supply in relation to competition between the various companies will tend to lower the price of the commodity at a price that is "normal," for example, the cost of production. There is no party that helps eliminate scarcity, but scarcity it will resolve itself. "Everyone," said Smith "tend to seek profit for himself, but he was" guided by the invisible hand to achieve the ultimate goal which is not a part of his desire. With the pursuit of self-interest he frequently advancing society more effectively than when he was actually suffering from a mean of enhancing "(The Wealth of Nations, Chapter IV, Article II).

"Unseen Hand" was not able to do the job properly if there is a disruption of free competition. Smith therefore believe in the free enterprise system and opposed the high price. Basically he opposed nearly all the interference of government in business and the free market. This intervention, says Smith, is almost always going to result in deterioration of the economic efficiency and ultimately will raise the price. (Smith does not create the slogan "laissez faire," but he more than anyone also spread the concept).

Some people get the impression that Adam Smith was none other than one that just "dance to the sound of the drum" for the sake of economic interests. This claim is not true. He repeatedly and with hard words, condemned depleted economic monopoly practices and want to eliminate it. And Smithbukannya naive people in economic relations practice. It can be read from the typical observations in the book The Wealth of Nations: "The world trade in the same goods can seldom meet together, but the talks will end in the formation of a plot as opposed to the people, or in other forms raise prices."

So perfect Adam Smith organizing and promoting economic thought system, so only within a period of just a few decades earlier economic schools excluded. In fact, all the thoughts they have a good system combined with Smith, while Smith to systematically reveal their shortcomings that exist. Substitute Smith including renowned economists such as Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo, develop and refine the system (without changing lines anyway) into a structure which has been classified into the category of classical economics. Up to a certain critical level, even Karl Marx's economic theory (though not political theory) can be regarded as a continuation of the classical economic theory.

In the book The Wealth of Nations, Smith mostly use Malthus's views about overpopulation. However, if Ricardo and Karl Marx both insist that population pressure would prevent wages rise beyond the purposes (so-called "law of wages steel"), Smith asserts that the conditions of production increase in wages can be raised. It is increasingly clear, the events - to prove that Smith was right in this respect, while Ricardo and Marx missed.

There was nothing to do with the provisions of view Smith or influence on economic theorists who came later, the most important is its influence on legislation and policy taken by the government. The Wealth of Nations was written with high intension and the clarity of the view that appropriate and very widely read. Arguments Smith faced government interference in business and world trade and for the low price and free economy, has affected accurately the lines of government policy throughout the 19th century. Indeed, its influence in that it is still felt today.

Since economic theory developed rapidly after the time of Smith, and some ideas displaced by the opinions of others, it is easy to play down the significance of Adam Smith. It must be so, the fact remains, he was the starter and founder economic figures as a systematic study, and he is indeed a prominent figure in the history of human thought.