Monday, September 29, 2014

1564-1616 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

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British playwright and poet William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon, England. It seems he got a decent basic education but do not get into college. Shakespeare married at the age of eighteen (his wife age twenty-six), three birth before reaching age twenty-one. 

A few years later, he went to London, became a stage and a children's playwright. When he reached thirty Shakespeare already showing success. And when age thirty-four, he was already so rich people and is considered the leading English playwright. Ten years later, he has produced major works such as Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and King Lear. 

In a period of twenty years who have special meanings that Shakespeare lived in London, his wife still live in Stratford. Shakespeare died in 1616 at about 52nd birthday. She has no living descendants. 

There are 38 famous drama of Shakespeare's creation, including several small dramas that probably worked with other people. In addition, he wrote some 154 sonatas and 3 or 4 long poems. 

Judging from the genius of Shakespeare, and the result was his fame that naturally, what a strange impression may arise because his name was not placed on the order over above in this blog list. I put Shakespeare is so low not because I do not appreciate the power of the results of his art, but only because I believe that in general literary figures of the artist or not has a great influence in history. 

Activities of religious leaders, scientists, politicians, investigators, philosophers, the more frequently creator influence on various fields of human life. For example, advances in science have a major influence on the political and economic livelihood, and also affect the religious beliefs, the nature of philosophical and artistic developments. 

However, a well-known painter, although he had a major influence on other painters, not have any influence on the development of music and literature, it is said also to science, or field of inquiry. The same thing applies to the field of poetry, drama and music. As a result, in general arguably, the influence of the artist just touched the arts, even limited to the particular art. Therefore, there is no literary figures, music or other art that is placed on the order No. 30, even just a few featured in this blog. 

Such being the case, why are there are also artists that includes a list? The answer is, the love of art is a direct part (though not always the main part) in an individual's life. In other words, someone can provide most of his time listening to music, mostly reading books, mostly looking at the painting and so on. Even if we spend time listening to music had no influence on our other activities (this is an exaggeration of course) after all the time it remains an important thing in our lives.

Of course an artist personally could have an influence on our lives more than we spend time to listen to music, read a book or enjoy their work. This is because his work has influenced so much good work of other artists whose results we like. 

In some ways, more or less artistic work has philosophical significance that could affect our attitude in other problem areas. It certainly happens more often in matters relating to literature than with music or painting. For example, in Romeo and Juliet (Act III, scene 1) Shakespeare wrote the prince's speech "Mercy but murders, pardoning Reviews those that kill," clearly presents an idea (off people accept it or not) who have had a philosophical meaning and more than political influence, say, looking at the painting "Mona Lisa." 

Shakespeare seems no doubt surpass all literary figures. Relatively, very few people now read Chaucer, Virgil or Homer, unless their work was finished reading the provisions of the school. However, staging a Shakespeare surely be welcome. Shakespeare advantages in terms of summary verses really unforgettable and sentences are often cited, even by people who have never for once seen or read any of his plays. More than that, the real true how fame is not just passing traffic. His work presents a happiness to its readers and viewers for nearly four centuries. Because the works were already established age tested, is worth consider that Shakespeare's fame will continue for centuries to come. 

In terms of determining the significance of Shakespeare one must take into account suppose he never lived in the world, his plays would never have written one at all. Of course, to some extent, a similar statement can be given to each artist or literary figure. However, it does not seem so factor has special significance in the assessment of the influence of the weight is on the small size of the artists. 

Although Shakespeare wrote in English, he has actually known figure of whole world. If instead of a transcendental universal language, English is most approaching the size of other languages ​​than ever. After all, Shakespeare's works have been widely translated and read and performed his work in various countries. 

There are of course some famous authors whose work is criticized by art critics. Not true in Shakespeare's work without backup appreciated by literary experts. Playwright generations studied and tried to imitate his work as well or outmaneuvered. The combination of the enormous influence of the authors and are not decision fame among society that puts Shakespeare in the sequence is quite high on the list this blog.

1889-1945 Adolf Hitler

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I enter the order of Hitler to the list this blog with disgust. Its influence is entirely evil and I do not have a sense of respect for people whose importance lies in the causes of death of about thirty-five million people. However, there's no way to deny the fact that Hitler had a tremendous influence on people who are not playing much. 

Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau 1889, Austria. As a teenager he was a failed artist who amateur and sometimes a young age he became a fanatical German nationalist. At the time of World War I, he entered the German Army, was wounded and earned two medals for bravery. 

The defeat of Germany makes devastated and furious. In 1919 when turned thirty years old, he joined a small right-wing party in Munich, and the party soon change its name to the Nationalist German Workers Party (Nazi summarized). Within two years he rose to be a leader without a rival in the German nickname called "Fuehrer." 

Under the leadership of Hitler, the Nazi party with incredible speed into a force and in November 1923 kupnya experiment failed. Coup known as the "Beer Hall Putsch The Munich." Hitler was arrested, accused traitor, and found guilty. However, he was released from prison after languishing there for less than a year.

In 1928 the Nazi party was a small party. But, raise a massive depression of the people are dissatisfied with the political parties are large and well-established. In these circumstances the Nazi party became more powerful, and in January 1933, when the age of forty-four years, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. 

With this position, Hitler quickly and deftly establish dictatorship by using government officials to confront all opposition. Keep in mind, this process is not through the erosion of civil liberties and rights to defend themselves against criminal charges, but settled with firearms and often the Nazi party did not bother with the filing procedure in court at all. Many political opponents beaten, even killed on the spot. Even so, before the outbreak of World War 2, Hitler won the support of most of the German population because he managed to reduce the number of unemployed and make economic improvements. 

Hitler then designing the road to conquests ultimately bring the world into World War 2nd. He won his first regional wars practically without passing at all. Britain and France surrounded by various kinds of economic difficulties, because it is so wanted peace so that they do not give a damn when Hitler betrayed the Versailles Agreement by establishing the German Armed Forces. Similarly, they do not take care when Hitler occupied and strengthened the castle in the Rhineland (1936), and likewise when Hitler annexed Austria (March 1938). Even they accept and agree when Hitler annexed the Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia border fortifications. International agreement known as the "Munich Pact" by the British and French were expected as a result of the purchase of "Peace of all time" is left trampled and they said nothing when Hitler seized Czechoslovakia a few months later in part because Czechoslovakia was helpless. At each stage, Hitler cleverly combining the arguments justifying it with the threat that he would be a war if the desire to be false, and at each stage of democracies feel daunted and fell backwards. 

However, Britain and France resolved defend Poland, Hitler's next target. First Hitler protect himself with the signatories of the pact "not to attack each other" in August 1939 with Stalin (essentially aggression treaty agreement because both agreed how to divide two Polish for the benefit of each). Nine days later, Germany invaded Poland and sixteen days after the Soviet Union did the same. Although Britain and France declared war on Germany, Poland soon be conquered. 

Hitler was a peak year intension In April 1940, Armed Forces attack the Danish and Norwegian. In May, he attacks the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. In June, the French bend your knees. But in the same year Britain desperately to survive against German air raids-known by the nickname "Battle of Britain" and Hitler was never able to set foot on British earth. 

DanYugoslavia German forces conquered Greece in April 1941 and in June of the same year Hitler tore up "agreement not to attack each other" with the Soviet Union and the opening raid. German Army can occupy the vast Russian territory but was unable to deactivate it completely before winter. Despite fighting against the British and the Russians, Hitler's unmitigated declare war with the United States in December 1941 and a few days later the Japanese attacked the United States, ransacked the Navy base at Pearl Harbor. 

In mid-1942 the Germans had already mastered part of the area of ​​Europe that could never be done by anyone in history. In addition, he ruled North Africa. The turning point of the war occurred in the second half of 1942 when Germany was defeated in the battle of El-Alamein complex in Egypt and Stalingrad in Russia. After this setback, the good fortune that had an umbrella for German soldiers gradually left him permanently. However, despite the defeat of Germany seems inevitable, Hitler refused to surrender. Instead he's more afraid, even continuing the attack for more than two years after Stalingrad. The bitter end of the story happens in the spring of 1945 Hitler committed suicide in Berlin on April 30 and seven days after the German surrender. 

During the period of power, Hitler engaged in acts of mass murder were no match in the history of benchmarks. He was a rabid racist, special to the Jews did with rancorous. He publicly announced kill every Jew in the world. In his reign, the Nazis build a large internment camps, equipped with gas chambers. In each region, an area authority, innocent people, men and women and children were herded and thrown into cattle cars for the next unplugged his life in the gas chambers. In a period of just a few years about 6,000,000 Jews deported to the afterlife. 

Jews are not the only group who became victims of Hitler. In the reign of dictatorship, the Russian and Gypsy also cleared, as well as happened to the people who are considered including the inferior races or enemies of the state. Never imagined this killing done spontaneously, or in hot conditions and the heat of battle. But Hitler built the death camp with meticulous organization as if he designed a large business enterprise. Structured data, the amount specified, and the bodies are systematically stripped limbs precious like gold teeth and wedding rings. Also many of the bodies used for soap factory. So rigorous plan of murder by Hitler until the end-even at the end of the war will be finished, when Germany shortage of materials made ​​use of both civilian and military, cattle cars continued to roll towards the camps in order to murder non-military terror mission. 

In many ways, it was obvious fame Hitler will be finished. First, he is the man widely considered the world's most blasted throughout history. If people like Nero and Caligula is one of the steps is not very meaningful if compared to Hitler and Hitler still remains a symbol of atrocities during the 20 century, seems not melesetlah if people predicted that Hitler was not so bad reputation in history will be remembered terlawankan people for decades centuries. 

The scenery in the concentration camp at Buchenwald 

More than that, of course, Hitler will be remembered as the culprit of the outbreak of World War 2, the biggest war ever occurred on earth. Progress of nuclear weapons as an impossibility to occur, large-scale war in the future. Therefore, even two or three thousand years from now, World War 2 may still be considered major events in history. 

Furthermore, Hitler will remain popular because the whole story concerning him so creepy and interesting, how a foreigner (Hitler was born in Austria, not Germany), how a person who has no political experience at all, do not have money, do not have political connections, was able to - in a period of less than fourteen years - became a prominent leader of a world power, is truly amazing. His ability as an orator was incredible. Measured by its ability to mobilize the masses in important actions, it can be said that Hitler was the greatest orator in history. Finally, how dirty the lift to the summit of power, once held in check his hand will not be quickly forgotten. 

Perhaps no figure in history who has so much influence on his generation than Adolf Hitler. In addition to the tens of millions of people who died in the war that he was the culprit, or those who died in the concentration camp, still millions and millions of people stranded without shelter or whose lives were ruined by the war. 

Other estimates of the effect of Hitler must consider two factors. First, many of which actually occurred under his leadership would never have happened if no Hitler. (In this regard he is very different from figures such as Charles Darwin or Simon Bolivar). Of course it is true that the situation in Germany and Europe provide an opportunity for Hitler. Passion on defense and anti-Jewish, for instance, is indeed mesmerizing his audience. No visible signs, for example, that generally the Germans in the 1920s or 1930s as the government intends to have driven by Hitler, and a few signs that other German princes Hitler would do the same. What made ​​Hitler slightest never expected to happen by the observer. 

Secondly, the entire Nazi movement controlled by a leader up to an incredible level. Marx, Lenin, Stalin and other leaders have the same role in the growth of Communism. However, National Socialism had no important leader before the advent of Hitler, so did nothing afterwards. Hitler led the party to power and stay on top. When he died, the Nazi party and government that led to death with him. 

However, despite the influence of Hitler on his generation is so large, as a result of his actions in the future seems to be not much larger. Hitler arguably failed miserably completing objectives ideals everywhere, and the effects seen in the next generation instead of the opposite of what he wants. For example, Hitler intended to spread the influence of Germany and the German territory. However, the areas conquered, though extremely vast, is just a short and temporary. And now even West Germany and East Germany merged into one if it is still smaller than the Republic of Germany when Hitler become head of government. 

Is the impulse of lust Hitler wanted to slaughter Jews. But fifteen years after Hitler came to power, an independent Jewish state stands for the first time after 2000 years. Hitler hated both Communism and the Soviet Union. However, after the death and partly due to the commencement of the war, Russia even expand his territory in a wide area in Eastern Europe and even the influence of Communism in the world is growing. Hitler pressed instead intends to destroy democracy, not only in other countries but in Germany itself. However, West Germany is now a democratic country and its inhabitants seem to run more hated dictatorship than any generation before Hitler. 

Nazi soldiers in 1933 

What happens is a strange combination of a tremendous influence upon him in power with such a small influence on later generations? Consequences caused Hitler at the time of his life is so enormous that it is obvious Hitler deserved to be placed in order of the list is rather high in this blog. 

Even so, of course he should be placed under figures like Shih Huang Ti, Augustus Caesar and Genghis Khan that his actions affect the world with a range long after his death. An almost parallel position with Hitler is Napoleon and Alexander the Great. In such a short time, Hitler was able to tear apart the world is much more severe than both. Hitler placed under the order they are because they have a longer effect.

1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte

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General and the famous French Emperor, Napoleon I, out of the womb in Ajaccio, Corsica, in 1769 the original name of Napoleon Bonaparte. Corsica entered French territory only fifteen months before Napoleon was born, and at times a nationalist teenage Corsica Napoleon who considered the French oppressors. However, Napoleon was sent in the military academy in France and when he graduated in 1785 at the age of fifteen he became a French army lieutenant. 

Four years later the French Revolution exploded and within a few years the new government of France was at war with some foreign countries. Napoleon's first chance to show his skill was in 1793, in the battle of Toulon (France recaptured the city from the hands of the UK), where Napoleon artillery duty in unity. At that time he was no longer adhered to the nationalist of Corsican understand, but already consider themselves French. Successes obtained in Toulon lift himself so brigadier general and in 1796 he was given command of the burden of responsibility so the French army in Italy. In the country, between the years 1796-1797, Napoleon also managed to seize a series of victories that made ​​him a hero when he returns to France. 

In 1798 he led an expedition of the French into Egypt. This step proved to be a catastrophe. On land, Napoleon's troops generally successful, but the British Navy under the command of Lord Nelson destroyed the French fleet steadily, and in 1799 Napoleon left his army in Egypt and returned to France. 

Once in France, Napoleon's jelly can be concluded that the French people more memorable with victories in Italy rather than the failure of the French expedition to Egypt. Hold on to this fact, only a month after he stepped on the earth of France, Napoleon took part in a power struggle with Albe Sieyès and others. this brings a new government called the "Consulate" and Napoleon became the first consul. Though the constitution has been drafted carefully and received approval through a plebiscite of the people, it's just a mere guise to cover the military dictatorship of Napoleon were immediately able to nudge and paralyze his opponents. 

The rise of Napoleon to power truly amazing. Precisely in the month of August 1793, before the battle of Toulon, Napoleon totally unknown people. He is nothing more than a low officer twenty-four years old and not entirely French. However, less than six years later - still in the age of thirty years - has been transformed so that the French authorities can not be denied again, his hand position for more than fourteen years. 

In the years of his rule, Napoleon did a massive overhaul of the system of administration as well as the French law. For example, he revolutionized the financial structure and the judiciary, he established the Bank of France and the University of France, as well as centralize administration. Although each of these changes have important meaning, and in some cases had long-term influence of power, especially for the French, it has significant impact for another country. 

But one of the reforms undertaken by Napoleon have influence beyond the power of the French state itself. Namely, the preparation of which famous as the Code Napoleon. In many ways, this code reflects the ideas of the French Revolution. For example, under this code no privileges based on birth and origin, all of the same degree in the eyes of the law. At the same code simply approached the old laws and customs of France so it is received by the people of France and the court system. In general, the code was moderate, well-organized and written in a concise, clear, and can be accepted, moreover easily understood. As a result, this code is not only applicable in France (the French civil law that applies now is almost similar to the Napoleonic Code) but also accepted also in other countries with the changes that are tailored to local needs. 

Political Napoleon constantly growing belief that he was the one who defended the French Revolution. However, in 1804 he also proclaim himself as Emperor of France. In addition, he lifted up his three brothers to the throne in several European countries. This step can not help but foster resentment on the part of the French Republic considers behavior was entirely a betrayal of the ideas and goals of the French Revolution. However, the main difficulty faced by Napoleon is a war with foreign countries. 

In 1802, in Amiens, Napoleon signed a peace treaty with England. It gives relief to the French wind within ten years is constantly at war. However, in the following year it broke the peace treaty and a long war with Britain and its allies began again. Although Napoleon's troops repeatedly won the battle on the mainland, the UK can not be defeated if only the fleet invincible. Unfortunately for Napoleon, the battle is improbable at Trafalgar in 1805, the British fleet a great victory. Therefore, monitoring and efficacy at sea is not in doubt. Despite the great victory of Napoleon (in Austerlitz against Austria and Russia) occurred six weeks after Trafalgar, it absolutely can not remove bitterness defeat in naval sector. 

In 1808 Napoleon made a great folly to involve France in a war that is long and uncertain Iiberia tip base on the peninsula, where the French troops stuck motionless for many years. However, Napoleon was the biggest mistake of his attack against Russia. In 1807 Napoleon met face to face with the Czar, and the Tilsit treaty they agreed to mobilize lasting friendship. However, conspiracy and alliance was gradually broken, and in June 1812 Napoleon led the giant army trampling Russian earth. 

The results of these actions have the same mind. Russian troops are generally shy away from dealing directly with the army fighting Napoleon, Napoleon because it can progress rapidly. In September Napoleon occupied Moscow. However, the Russians burned the city and mostly flat on the ground. After waiting five weeks in Moscow (with vain hopes Russia will offer peace), Napoleon finally decided to resign, but the decision was already too late. The combination of the Russian army blows and cruel winter, not inadequate supply of French forces resulted in the retreat into the backward movement of the helter-skelter. Less than ten percent of the giant French troops could get out of Russia alive earth. 

Other European countries, such as Austria and Prussia, aware they had a good chance to beat the French. They combine all the strength to face Napoleon, and at the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, Napoleon had another bitter blow to stagger. The following year he stopped and banished to Elba Island, a small island off the coast of Italy. 

In 1815 he escaped from Elba Island, returned to France, was well received and return to power. European powers immediately declare war and one hundred days after the seat again he was on the throne of power, Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo deadly. 

After Waterloo, Napoleon was imprisoned by the British at St. Helena, a small island in the southern Atlantic Ocean. This is where he breathed his last in 1821 from cancer attacks. 

Napoleon's military career presents an interesting paradox. The genius of movement tactics very fascinating, and when measured in terms of it alone, so he could be considered a most general of all time. But in the field of basic strategy he fell as a result make a big mistake, such as the invasion of Egypt and Russia. Errors strategy is so stupid that Napoleon dubbed unworthy of a first-class military leader. Is this the second assumption is not fair? I think not. Indeed, the size of a general greatness lies in its ability to circumvent the mistakes that led towards destruction. That sort of thing does not happen to Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane whose army was never defeated. Because ultimately defeated Napoleon in 1815, France has a smaller area than were ever owned by his in 1879, when the outbreak of the Revolution. 

Napoleon certainly an "egomaniac" and often considered as with Hitler. However, there are intricate differences between the two. If Hitler acted partly at the instigation of the biggest hidden ideology, Napoleon solely driven by opportunistic ambition and he had no sense doing a great slaughter and crazy genocide. In the reign of Napoleon, there is a sort of concentration camp like that belongs to Hitler. 

Extremely famous name Napoleon is very easy to trap people think he was a big influence excessively. Future short-term effect is large, probably larger than Alexander the Great, although not by Hitler. (According to estimates, about 500,000 French soldiers died in the Napoleonic wars, was approximately 800,000 Germans were killed during World War 2). By any measure, the destruction of Napoleon's actions less than what Hitler done. 

In regard to long-term effects, it seems more important than Hitler Napoleon, although much less important than Alexander the Great. Napoleon make extensive changes in the administrative system of France, but the French population only seventy-one per world population. In each incident, such administrative changes should be reviewed from the perspective of a reasonable angle. Influence on the French people is much less than the change in number of technological advances in the last two centuries. 

Many people say, Napoleonic times provide opportunities for consolidation and increasingly the established French bourgeoisie. In 1815, when the French monarchy eventually reorganized, this change is sustained and protected so well that the possibility of a return to the social patterns of the old order something that is completely impossible. However, the most important changes actually occur and composed before Napoleon. In 1799 when Napoleon held the reins of government every way possible in the direction of a return to the status quo is too late. However, apart from the ambitions of Napoleon himself was almost like a king, he does hold an important role in the spread of the idea of ​​revolution throughout Europe. 

Napoleon also brought as a result of the emergence of a large and widespread influence in the Latin American revolution. Invasion into Spain Spain thus weaken the grip of colonial rule in the colonies also loosened itself and ineffective. In a situation of de facto autonomy of these independence movements of Latin America began to erupt. 

Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo. 

Of all the steps deeds of Napoleon, the most important and most have a long term effect of it that is outside the plan and has nothing to do with Napoleon's own plan. 

In 1803, Napoleon sold the vast area of ​​the United States. He knew, belonged to the French in North America are hard to protect against attacks from England. In addition, he also needs money, the Louisiana land sales may be the buying and selling of land peacefully the largest in history and change the United States into a continent-sized country. It is hard to imagine what shape the United States without this Louisiana. It must be a completely different country to what we know today. And also worth doubt the United States can be a strong country without buying and selling these Louisiana. 

Napoleon, of course, not the only person who played a role and is responsible for sales. The American government clearly grasp the role anyway. However, the French offer to sell Louisiana was decided in the negotiations by one person. And people was Napoleon Bonaparte.

356-323 BC The Great Alexander

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Alexander the Great, the famous conqueror of the world was born in Pello past year 356 BC, the Macedonian capital. His father, King Philip II of Macedonia man who had the ability and far-sighted. Philip enlarge and organize the Macedonian Armed Forces and turn them into high-quality fighting force. The first time the use of this option is the Armed Forces when he conquered the surrounding area to get to northern Greece, then turned south and conquered nearly the whole of Greece. Philip then form a federation of Greek cities and he himself be the leader. When he again designed a plan of attack against the vast Persian Empire located in the east of Greece even invasion has already begun in the year 336 BC-Philip was killed, when she was only forty-six years to reach. 

Age Alexander was only twenty years old when his father died but without the difficulty he succeeded his father to the throne. Philip carefully away days already made ​​preparations for his successor and the young Alexander already had knowledge and considerable military experience. In terms of intellectual education was Philip not ignore it. Teachers make Alexander provided a special father: Aristotle, a man of most scholars and philosophers probably the most famous in the ancient world. 

Both in Greece and the areas around the north, the population of the conquered Philip looked Philip's death is a great opportunity to dispel Macedonia and subverting the power grip. However, in just two years after the accession to the throne, Alexander has been able to overcome those regions. After that attention is diverted to the Persian. 

For two thousand years the Persians controlled a vast territory, stretching from the Mediterranean to India. Although Persia was no longer in the peak of his prowess, but still remains a formidable opponent and respected, the most extensive empire, the most powerful and richest on earth. 

Alexander launched his first attack to Persia in 334 BC. Because he had to set aside some of its troops in the country to maintain and oversee its European inilik, Alexander only had 35 000 soldiers accompanying a dangerous adventure when he did, a number of small, insignificant when compared to the power of the Persian Army. In addition to a number of misfortunes that befall him, Alexander won a series of victories against Persian forces in gempurannya. There are three factors were the cause of his victory. First, the troops left behind his father, Philip, really well-trained and organized, better than the Persians. Second, Alexander himself a warlord genius, perhaps the most genius of all time. Third, Alexander's own courage. Although he led the first stages of the battle behind the front lines, Alexander is leading his own decision cavalry gave decisive blow. This is a risky way and he was often injured in battle like this kind. But his troops witnessed with my own eyes that Alexander did not really abysmal face of danger and do not want to impose a risk on the shoulders of others. This brings a direct result in improving the morale of soldiers convincing. 

Alexander led his troops first hit Asia Minor, strike hard tiny Persian army stationed there. Then he moved north Syria, crush large Persian army at Issus city. then he turned toward invaded the south, and after heavy and hard fought throughout the seven months, he managed to conquer the island city of Tyre Phoenicia is now called Lebanon. When Alexander was fighting in Tyre, he received a message from the King of Persia offers half his kingdom if only for Alexander Alexander willing to agree to a peace treaty. One of the generals of Alexander, Parmenio, considers good and decent offer accepted. "If I were Alexander, I accepted the offer." What responsibility Alexander? "So did I, if I was named Parmenio." 

After the fall of Tyre, Alexander continued movement to the south. Gaza fell after fighting for two months. Egypt surrendered without fighting anything. After occupying Egypt, Alexander settled for a while just to give time for the rest of his soldiers. In the country, although he was only twenty-four years, he was given the title of Pharaoh's grace and crowned as gods. After the break is enough, Alexander and his army moved again back to the mainland of Asia, and in the battle of life and death that determines at Arbela in 331 BC, he had completely paralyze most of the Persian army. 

After the resounding victory of Alexander brought his army to Babylon and break into Persian cities, Suso and Persepolis. Persian King Darius III (rather than his predecessor Darius the Great) was killed by his officers in the year 330 BC to prevent surrender to Alexander. Even so, Alexander defeated and killed substitute Darius, and in the battle for three years, he has conquered all the eastern parts of Iran and urged continued into Central Asia. 

With all of the Persian Empire was under the soles of his feet, Alexander should take the decision to return home to his country and organizing his territory. But, thirsty conquest unbearable, because he continued his assault on Afghanistan. From there he led his army across the Hindu Kush mountains to India. He acquired a large run of wins in the western part of India and intends to continue his assault on the eastern part of India. But, his troops were tired and struggling for years due to fighting, and refused to continue the raid. So reluctantly Alexander returned to Persia. 

After returning to Persia, Alexander spent about a year organizing the army and the empire under their control. Alexander grew up with the belief that Greek culture is the only culture that is superior and the thumb and all the nations who are not Greek is none other than the barbarians. The belief is certainly widespread scattered throughout the realm of the mind and the Greek world, even Aristotle himself thought so. However, despite its success quell exhausted the Persian army, Alexander realized the Persians was not a barbarian, and the Persians could be equally capable and equally good with the Greeks. Therefore Alexander contains the intention to merge the two into one empire, and dijelmakannya culture combined with the formation of the Graeco-Persian empire with her ​​own course was in top leadership of the ruling. As far as we can ascertain, he wishes that the Persians serious an equal partner with the people of Greece and Macedonia. In order to implement this plan, he put a lot of Persians into the Armed Forces. He also had a party what he called "Marriage of East and West" in which thousands of Macedonian army officially marrying the daughters of Asia. He himself, despite his wife to marry a noble lady of Asia before, marry the daughter of Darius. 

Palpable once, Alexander intends to conduct additional conquest by the Armed Forces who have organized this back. We know, he intends to conquer Arabia, and perhaps also the area located in northern Persia. And maybe he already had plans to occupy India or invade Rome, Carthago and parts of the Mediterranean. No matter how the plan is structured, which is certainly no longer the next conquest. In early June of the year 323 BC when Alexander was in Babylon, all of a sudden he had a fever and he died ten days later. At that time not yet reached age thirty-three years. 

Alexander did not appoint a successor, and soon after he began to happen there is no power struggle. In this struggle, his mother, his wife, his children are all killed. Kingdom was divided among his generals. 

Because Alexander died in a very young age and was never defeated, a lot of speculation whether the hell would happened if the length of his age. When he took his army invaded and conquered areas west Mediterranean Sea, most likely he will succeed, and in this case the entire history of Western Europe will experience major changes. But this speculation-no matter how attractive has nothing to do with the actual success that has been achieved. 

Regions Empire of Alexander the Great 

Alexander may be an extremely dramatic figure in history, and his personal career remain a source of wonder. The evidence is quite dramatic career success and dozens of fairy tales have sprung up concerning his name. And once it has become clear ambition to be the biggest warriors and conquerors of all time, and it seems well-deserved nickname he acquired it. As individual fighters, the capabilities and covered her courage. As a general, he is extremely accomplished, as long as eleven years of fighting, never once did he lose stuff. 

At the same, he is an intellectual who studied under the tutelage of master Aristotle and Homer's poems. In terms of realizing the idea that the nation is not necessarily non-Greek barbarians, clearly shows that the mind has the power to reach farther than most of the Greek thinkers of the time. 

But, on the other hand, Alexander had a narrow view. Although he repeatedly at risk in battle, he did not prepare his successor. Negligence that is the cause of his empire fell apart so quickly after he dies. 

Alexander considered likely handsome face, and he was often very generous to the defeated enemy. On the other hand, he was also an "egomaniac" and a vicious temper. On one occasion, in a quarrel in an unconventional sense, he killed his close friend, Clertus, a man who once saved his life. 

Just as Napoleon and Hitler, Alexander had a tremendous influence on his generation. Short period of influence, a more concise than they, solely because of limited means to travel to and fro, and communication at the time limit and minimize its impact on the world. 

In the long run, the most important effect of the conquest of Alexander the Greek culture is closer to the Middle East, so that each one gets benefits to supplement and enhance their culture. During and shortly after the careers of Alexander, Greek culture quickly spread to Iran, Mesopotamia, Syria, Judea, and Egypt. Before Alexander, Greek culture was already penetrated into these regions but 

with slow. Also, the influence of Alexander spread Greek culture to India and Central Asia, areas previously unexplored. However, the cultural influence is not the only valid means one-sided and the majors. In the Hellenistic centuries (centuries immediately after the steps of Alexander) East ideas-particularly-religious ideas spread to the Greek world. With this Hellenistic culture was dominant but it actually seems to Greece East immense influence of the mind upon the influence of Rome. 

In the period of his career, Alexander established more than twenty-one new city. The most famous of all is Alexandria (Alexandria) in Egypt that the tempo is fast becoming the leading city in the world and is a center of culture and education are famous. Others such as Herat and Kandahan in Afghanistan also developed into important cities. 

Alexander, Napoleon, and Hitler had felt the weight of his influence in the equation in general. People will be impressed, however, the influence of the latter two lifetimes shorter than Alexander. On this basis he can place the order a little bit more on.

1356-1939 Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis early starters, was born in 1856 in the town of Freiberg, now located in Czechoslovakia, but formerly belonged to the Austrian Empire. When he was four years old, his family moved to Vienna and that's where he spent most of his life. Freud a topnotch student in school, earned his medical degree from the University of Vienna in 1881 Over the next ten years he undertook in-depth investigations in the fields of psychology, psychiatry clinic staff formed, private practice in neurology, worked in Paris with the famous French neurologist Jean Charcot and also with the Viennese doctor Josef Breuer. 

The idea of ​​Freud in the field of psychology developed level by level. Stone 1895 his first book published investigations of hysteria, in collaboration with Breuer. The next book The Interpretation of Dreams, published in 1900 this book is one of his most original and the most important, though slower sales market at first, but catapulted the name of the fragrance. After that jump out of his work to the essential, and in 1908 when Freud gave a series of lectures in the United States, Freud has become the truly famous. In 1902 he organized a group discussion of psychology in Vienna. One of the first member to join was Alfred Adler, and a few years later were also Carl Yung. The two men eventually became champion of psychology through their own efforts. 

Freud mating and lambing six. At the time of end of his life contaminated jaw bone cancer in 1923 and since then he has surgery and more than thirty times in order to restore its condition. Even so, he still found work and some important works to emerge in subsequent years. In 1938 the Nazis occupied Austria and the Sigmund Freud 82-year-old Jewish descent and was forced to go to London and died there a year later. 

Freud's contribution in the field of psychology theory is so wide-reaching power that is not easy to abbreviate it. He emphasized the great importance of the unconscious processes of human behavior. He shows how the process affects the content of the dream-talk and cause misses or false call, forget the names and also causes suffering on homemade and even disease. 

Freud developed the technique of psychoanalysis as a method of healing mental illness, and he formulated a theory about the structure of the human person, and he also developed or popularized psychological theories concerned with anxiety, self-defense mechanism, the particulars circumcision, feeling depressed, sublimation and more. His writings inspire excitement psychology field theory. Many of his ideas are controversial, that provoke intense debate since flung. 

Freud is perhaps best known in terms of proposing the idea that sexual desire is often the cause of significant distress in terms of mental illness or neurosis. (Indeed, Freud was not the first to bring up this subject, although his writings give so much encouragement in the use of the scientific field). He also suggests that sexual desire and sexual appetite began during childhood rather than in adulthood. 

Since many of the ideas of Freud still at odds with each other, it is very difficult to put his position in history. He was a pioneer and a digger, with talent and remarkable intelligence which produces various ideas. However, Freud's theories (unlike Darwin or Pasteur) never managed to get an agreement from the scientific community and extremely difficult to say which parts of the idea that ultimately can be regarded as a truth. 

Apart from the ongoing opposition to his ideas, it seems little doubt that Freud is a prominent figure in the history of human thought. Its opinions in the field of psychology has completely revolutionized our conception of the human mind, and a lot of ideas as well as the terms have been used by the public-for example: ego, super-ego, Oedipus complex and the tendency would desire to die. 

It is true that psychoanalysis is a way of healing that is extremely expensive and very serious, and anyway it did not work anything. However, it is also true techniques achieve great successes. The psychologist concluded that future repressed sexual desires will be increasingly important role in human behavior than is the adherents of the schools of Freud. However, this passion has certainly had a large stock of most psychologists assumption before Freud. Similarly, the majority of psychologists now believe that the unconscious mental processes which play a role in determining human behavior, something that is underestimated people before Freud. 

Freud was not the first psychologist, and in the long run may not be considered to be those whose ideas mostly closer to the truth. However, he's clearly the most influential figures and the most important in the development of modern psychological theory and his views have a very big significance in the field provides him the right to fairly high in the order listed in the blog list.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

1743-1794 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER

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Great French scientist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was a leading figure in the field of chemistry development. At the time of his birth in Paris in 1743, far behind the science chemistry than physics, mathematics and astronomy. A large number of self-discovery which itself has many discovered by chemistry experts, but none of the theories can be a handle that can summarize information separate. At that time distributed inconclusive sort of confidence that the water and air is a substance that is elementary. Even worse, any misunderstanding of the nature rather than the fire. Growing belief that time is that all objects combustion process contains substances speculation called "phlogiston," and that during the process of combustion, releasing flammable substance phlogiston stuff her into the air. 

In the period between the years 1754 - 1774, talented chemical experts such as Joseph Black, Joseph Priestley, Henry Cavendish and others have isolated the significance of gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. However, since these people accept the theory of phlogiston, they do not want to understand the nature or significance of chemical substances that have them find. Oxygen, for example, is seen as the air that all its phlogiston had been transferred. (As we know that the more perfect the wood chips burning in oxygen than in air, this may be easier to suck the air due to the phlogiston of the latest wood). Obviously, real progress in the field of chemistry can not occur before the main basics can be understood. 

The Lavoisier who successfully and handle the parts into the puzzle into a single unit that can be justified and find the right direction in theoretical chemistry. In the first stage, said Lavoisier, phlogiston theory completely misses: there is no such thing as phlogiston objects. The combustion process consists of a chemical combination of the oxygen burning stuff. Secondly, water is not elementary stuff at all but rather a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen. The air is not too elementary substance but consists primarily of a mixture of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. All these statements now seem obvious now, but can not yet well understood by Lavoisier's predecessors and contemporaries colleagues. Even after Lavoisier formulated the theory and apply to scientists, but there are still many chemists leaders who rejected the idea of this theory. However, the book is a brilliant Lavoisier Basic Principles of Chemistry (1789), so bright and crystal clear and put forward this hypothesis very convincing and outperformed the opinions of others, then the chemical experts quickly the younger generation to believe it. 

While proving that water and air are not chemical elements, Lavoisier also included in his list of substances that objects are considered fundamental and meaningful's rudimentary though it contains some errors, the list of today's modern chemical element is essentially an extension of what is already compiled Lavoiser it. 

Lavoiser have created the first scheme neatly arranged on the chemical system (in collaboration with Berthollet, Guyton de Fourcroi and Morveau). In Lavoisier's system (which is so basic grip until now) the chemical composition is described by its name. For the first time acceptance of a uniform chemical system is described that allows the chemists around the world can relate to each other in terms of their inventions. 

Lavoisier was the first to clearly put forward the principles of object storage amount of a chemical reaction without specific form: the reaction can set back the correct element in the substance of the original but there is nothing that is indestructible and the end result was the same weight as original components. Lovoisier beliefs about the importance of weighing precision chemical reactions involve change of chemistry into a science and at the same time prepare the way for many advances in the field of chemistry in the decades afterward. 

Lavoisier also contributed in the field of geological investigation, and also donated a convincing science in physiology. With experiments extremely carefully (in collaboration with Laplace), he was able to demonstrate that the physiological process of perspiration is basically the same with a slow combustion process. In other words, human and animal people draw their energy from organic combustion process slowly from within, with the use of oxygen in the air combination. This discovery alone - which is probably equivalent to the importance of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood - enough to seat Lavoisier's role in this blog sequence list. In addition, Lavoisier had a very important meaning thanks to the formulation of the theory of chemical undefeated as a starting point for chemical knowledge sector on the right track. He is generally regarded as the "founder of modern chemistry", and indeed he deserves that title. 
"List of Periodic Elements" which is basically a modern extension of the list of Lavoisier 

As well as some of the figures listed in this list, Lavoisier actually studied law at the time of adolescence. Although he can be a law degree and raised in an environment of legal experts but not once did he ever practiced his knowledge, though he was dabbling in the world of French administrative offices and public affairs services. But mainly he was at work in the Royal Academy of Sciences of France. He is also a member of Ferme Generale, an organization that is involved in the world of tax affairs. As a result, after the French Revolution in 1789, the revolutionary government is very suspect. 

Eventually he was arrested, along with twenty-seven members of the Ferme Generale. Court of revolution may not be too careful, but the inspection process goes quickly. One day dated May 8, 1794 twenty-seven people were tried, convicted and beheaded by guillotine. Lavoisier was able to continue living with his wife who always helped in intelligent investigation work. 

At the time of trial, there is a request that the case be separated Lavoisier, while promoting a service that has been done for society and science. The judge rejected a request to comment concise "Republic do not need a genius." Great mathematician Langrange snapped and defend his right: "It takes an instant to cut off a head, but not quite a hundred years to put it on the head in original position."

1871-1948 Orrville Wright & 1867-1912 Wilbur Wright

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These two brothers are related to each other, they are listed together in this blog list and particulars of both will be presented in a single breath. Wilbur Wright was born in 1867 in the town of Millville, Indiana. Orville Wright - his brother - was born in 1871 in the city of Dayton, Ohio. Both of these boys sitting in college but none earn a diploma. 

Both have talent in the field of mechanics and both are interested in the problem of human to fly into the air. In 1892 they opened a shop, selling, fixing and holding the bike. This effort to bring funds to continue his intentions: aeronautics sector inquiry. These brothers engrossed pursue the works of others such as aeronautics enthusiasts: Otto Lilienthal, Octave Chanute and Samuel P. Langley. In 1899 they began to work towards his own flight. In December 1903, after four years of hard work for less, the results of his efforts succeeded brilliantly. 

One may wonder to the Wright brothers were able to create achievement failed to do others. There are several reasons that make them successful. First, two heads are certainly more effective than one head. The Wright brothers always work together and supporting with a very harmonious and perfect. Secondly, they deftly make decisions that they first learn how to fly before trying to raise a plane. At first glance it seemed contrary to the public according to size: how to learn to fly if there is no airplane? The answer is, the Wright brothers learned to fly using a glider. At first they observe the workings of a kite, then launcher. The following year they brought large size glider to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, enough to be boarded and can lift a human. The plane attempted. It seems that the results are not too encouraging. They make and try to complete glider in 1901 and 1902 followed by the fabrication of three aircraft launcher is a combination of various important discoveries them. Some of the basic patent, used in 1903, in association with the glider aircraft than their first. Regarding the third glider that they have more than a thousand times taking off successfully. Both Wright brothers had a glider pilot's best and most experienced in the world before they began to raise a powered aircraft. 

Experience airs the glider is at the core of their third success is very important. Many people who previously had tried to raise a plane has been a major concern of his creation how to fly. Wright brothers with proper realizes that the main problem is how to keep an eye on after the plane was in the air. Therefore, most of the time and attention they shed on the matter of how to achieve stability when the aircraft is flying. They managed to create three types of basic tools to monitor aircraft, and this is what makes them successful in the show. 

The Wright brothers also make an important contribution in terms of the design of the wing. They are aware, the data that have been published previously, could not hold onto. Therefore they created themselves alleys wind and tried against more than two thousand different forms of wing surface. The main core of this experiment is that the two brothers were able to make their own parts, describes the air pressure on the wing depends on the shape of the wing. This information is then used in the manufacture of aircraft wings each. 

Besides all of their research, the brothers Wright is not going to be successful if they do not perform successfully at the right time in history. Experiments using flight with the engine in the first half of the 19th century clearly tend toward failure. Steam engine obviously too heavy for aviation use. At the time the brothers Wright appeared, processing engine combustion was found. However, this machine is only for use in general, are too heavy for use in aircraft flight. When no one else is able to design a factory machine is quite light, the brothers Wright (with the help of an engine) to design their own. It shows their genius because even within a relatively short yet they are capable of designing a machine that is superior to almost all other factory-made. In addition, the Wright brothers themselves propeller design. The one that they use in 1903, 66% successfully. 


The original dual plane of the Wright brothers 

The first flight conducted December 17, 1903 at Kill Devil Hill near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Each of the two brothers were doing two flights on that day. The first flight, which carried Orville Wright lasted 12 seconds and reach a distance of 120 feet. Last flight, Wilbur Wright made​​, lasts 59 seconds and reaches a height of 852 feet. The plane which they named Flyer I (now known by the nickname Kitty Hawk) takes the cost of manufacture is less than 1000 dollars. The plane had a wing 40 feet long and weighs about 750 pounds, measuring 12 horsepower engine weighing just 170 pounds. The original aircraft is now stored neatly in the Air and Space Museum Washington DC 

Although there are five witnesses when the first flight, relatively few publications reported by newspapers on the next day (and it was generally less accurate). His hometown newspaper in Dayton Ohio at all think nothing of this business. five years after it was realized that the common world of human flight really could have been done. 

After their flight at Kitty Hawk, the Wright brothers returned to his hometown in Dayton. There they designed and made it the second plane, the Flyer II. With this second plane that they do 105 times the cost in 1904 without attracting public attention at all. Flyer III aircraft that have been enhanced and more practical contrived 1905 Although they are many times the air near the town of Dayton, many people still do not believe that the name is already born aircraft in the world. In 1906 - for example - the paper edition of The Herald Tribune article titled Paris decrease Flyer or Liars? (Flyers or liars?). 

In 1908 they were finally swept away all doubts and general mistrust. Wilbur Wright flew his plane to France, to make a demonstration of acrobatics in the air and the organizing companies to market their creations. Meanwhile, in the United States, Orville Wright presents a similar show. Unfortunately, on 17 September 1908 crashing his plane crashed. This is an accident that never experienced them both. A passenger was killed, Orville broken leg and two ribs but can be cured. The success of the flight evocative United States government signed a contract to make a plane for the United States Department of Defense, and in 1909 the government budget is no order for $ 30,000 for the purposes of the Air Force. 

Once there was a legal dispute concerning patents between the Wright brothers with his rival, but in 1914 the court rejected their demands. is one-sided, in 1912 and Wilbur Wright died of typhoid stricken at the age of forty-five years. Orville Wright, who in 1915 sold its shares to a company, lived until 1948 Neither of the two brothers were never married. 

Although many investigations in this field that preceded it, is no doubt that Wright brothers which can be regarded as a forerunner to the invention of airplanes. In determining the order in the list of this book, which is so key grip is the creation of an aircraft has meaning is less important than the invention of the printing press or steam power which both had constructed a revolutionary overhaul of human livelihood. However, undoubtedly the discovery of the aircraft is an important historical phenomenon, both in terms of usage for the purpose of peace and war. Within a decades thereafter, the aircraft had constructed our world is so small even the space was great being able to touch the finger. And more than that, the discovery of a man charged aircraft beginners and opening the way for flight in outer space. 

Centuries old dream of flying that has become human. They want to float in the sky with a fly rug as in the tales of the Thousand and One Nights, which are distant dreams within reach. Wright bersaudaralah genius who has realized that dream come true, really flew by plane and cross-legged on the rug instead of a fairy tale.

1831-1879 James Clerk Maxwell

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Famous British physicist James Clerk Maxwell is best known for the formulation of four statements that describe the basic laws of electrical and magnetic. 

Both of these fields before Maxwell has been investigated for a long time and have been known to exist as a link between the two. However, despite the various laws of electricity and magnecity already discovered and contain truth in some aspects, before Maxwell, none of these laws which is a unified theory. In he had four legal instruments formulated briefly (but have high weights), Maxwell managed to describe precisely the behavior and mutual relations between the electric and magnetic fields. By doing so he changed the large number of phenomena into a single theory that can be used as handhold. Maxwell theory has become a fad in the previous century extensively in both the theory and the practice of science. 

The most important value of, the new Maxwell's opinion is: a lot of the general equation that can occur in all circumstances. All the laws of electrical and magnetic preexisting opinion can be ascribed to Maxwell, as well as a large number of other laws, which was once a theory that is not known. From Maxwell's opinion can be shown how shakeness alternating electromagnetic field on a periodic basis is something that could happen. Motion back and forth like a hanger is called electromagnetic waves, which when once moved will continue to spread to outer space. From these opinions were able to show that the speed of electromagnetic waves that reach approximately 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second. Maxwell knows that this is equal to the size of the speed of light. From this angle he correctly concluded that light itself consists of electromagnetic waves. 

So, not only is the opinion of Maxwell basic laws of electricity and magnicity, but also at the same time is a basic law of optics. Indeed, all previous law known as the law of optics can be attributed to his opinion, too many facts and relationships with the things that were once unspeakable. 

Light visible to the eye is not only kind that allows electromagnetic radiation. Opinion Maxwell showed that electromagnetic waves other, in contrast to visible light by the eye he had a wavelength and frequency, there may be. The theoretical conclusions are admirably reinforced by Heinrich Hertz, which is able to produce and meet the second wave appears to the eye was predicted by Maxwell. A few years later, Guglielmo Marconi demonstrated that the waves are not visible to the eye that can be used for communication without wires, so what is the name of the radio. Now, we use also for television, X-rays, gamma rays, infrared rays, ultraviolet rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation. Everything can be learned through the ideas of Maxwell. 

Although the most prominent Maxwell fame lies in the tremendous contribution in the field of mind and electromagnetic optics, he also makes an important contribution to the world of science in other respects, including the theories of astronomy and thermodynamics (heat particulars of the investigation). One of particular interest is the kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell realized that not all gas molecules move at the same speed. Some are slow, some are fast, and some with incredible speed. Maxwell tried special formula shows the smallest molecules move (in a certain temperature) at a certain speed anyway. This formula is called the "spread of Maxwell," is the formula most widely used in scientific formulas, and contains an important meaning and benefits of each branch of physics. 

Maxwell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1831 he developed so early: at the age of fifteen years he has been able to present a scientific paper work to the "Edinburgh Royal Society." He entered the University of Edinburgh and graduated from the University of Cambridge. Married, but childless. Maxwell is generally considered the biggest theoretician in the field of physics in the entire period between Newton and Einstein. Brilliant career ended too quickly because he passed away in 1879 from cancer attacks, not long after celebrating the birthday-48.

1791-1867 Michael Faraday

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This century the century of electricity. Indeed, some say space age, some say the atomic century, but all of this - however the importance of the - relatively little impact on daily life. As with electricity. It seems unimaginable to live without electricity could go either way. Inexhaustible from morning to morning we took the benefit of electricity. The fact is, there is no type of technology is so widely spread rather than the use of electricity. 

Many prominent contributor in the case of electricity: Charles Augustine de Coulomb, Count Alessandro Volta, Hans Christian Oersted and Andre Marie Ampere. They-they are among the best masters in the field of electricity. However, the peak bin is the culmination of all the British scientist Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. While the work of the two men are related to each other and complement each other-complete, but they are not to be in a team, each one created personally, because it can be both a place of honor in the order list this blog. 

Michael Faraday was born in 1791 in Newington, England. Coming from a family dispossessed and generally learn on their own. At the age of fourteen years he was an apprentice so builders volumes and selling books, and he used this opportunity to read a lot of books. When twenty-years old stepped on, he visited the lectures given by renowned British scientist Sir Humphry Davy. Faraday was fascinated. Davy wrote to both profit and short story accepted as his assistant. Within a few years, Faraday was able to raise a new discoveries on his own creation. Although he does not have sufficient background in mathematics, as a natural scientist he was unbeaten. 

Faraday's first important discovery in the field of electricity occurred in 1821 two years before Oersted discovered that a magnetic compass needle can be moved if the ordinary electric current flowed in the wire are not far apart. This raise a Faraday concluded, if the magnet be tightened, the wire actually moves. Working on the basis of these allegations, he managed to make a clear scheme where the wire will constantly rotating adjacent to the magnet along the electric current supplied to the wire. Indeed, in this case the Faraday had discovered the first electric motor, an electric current using the first scheme to make something moving objects. No matter how primitive, Faraday's discovery of an "ancestor" of all electric motors used today's world. 

This is a remarkable pacer. However, its practical usefulness is limited avail, as long as there is no method to drive electric current from the batteries other than simple chemical at that time. Faraday believed, there must be a way to move the use of magnetic power, and he's constantly looking for a way how to find the method. Now, the magnetic sedentary does not affect the electric current adjacent to the wire. But in 1831, Faraday discovered that when a magnet passed through a piece of wire, current will flow in the wire while the magnet moves. This situation is called "electro magnetic influence," and this is called "Faraday's Law" and is generally considered to be the most important discovery of Faraday and greatest. 

This is a monumental discovery, for two reasons. First, "Faraday's Law" has a fundamental importance in relation to our theoretical understanding of electro-magnetic. Secondly, electro magnetic can be used to drive a continuous flow of electricity as Faraday exhibited itself by passing the manufacture of the first electric dynamo. Although our power generators to supply power plants and factories of today's city is much more perfect than what is done Faraday, but are all based on similar principles to the electro magnetic influence. 

Faraday also contributed in the field of chemistry. He made a plan to turn the gas so fluid, she finds various types of chemicals, including benzene. More important works are his efforts in the field of electro-chemistry (chemical investigation due to the flow of electricity). Investigations Faraday with great precision to produce two laws "elektrolysis" that their mention his name coupled with that is the foundation of electro chemistry. He also popularized a lot of the terms used in the field such as: the anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. 

And is likewise a Faraday introduced to the world of physics important ideas about the magnetic lines and electric power line. With the emphasis that is not its own magnetic field, but in between, he helped prepare the way for various kinds of advancements in the field of modern physics, including statements about the Maxwell equations between the two expressions through a sign (=) as 2x + 5 = 10 Faraday also found that, if a combination of two light is passed through a magnetic field, combination will change. These findings have special significance, because this is the first clue that there is a relationship between light with magnet. 

Faraday was not only smart but also good-looking and had a style as speaker. However, he is simple, does not take the matter in terms of fame, money and adulation. He refuses been knighted and also refused to be president of the British Royal Society. Live long and happy marriage, just do not have any children. He died in 1867 near the city of London

1732-1799 George Washington

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Born in 1732 in Wakefield, Virginia, farmer children were, George Washington inherited a vast estate parcel at the age of twenty-seven years. From the years 1753-1758 Washington serving in the army, took an active part in the Indian wars of the French army opponents, and gained a lot of experience and praise. He returned to Virginia late in 1758, and took retirement. Shortly thereafter he married Martha Dandridge Custis with a wealthy widow with two children. (He himself never had children). 

Washington within the next fifteen years managing a neat plantation management. In 1774, when he was elected vice Virginia attended the First Continental Congress, he was the richest man in the American colonies. Washington is not the first to call for independence; but in the month of June 1775 in the second Continental Congress (which he also became vice-Virginia), he was elected commander of the entire Continental army. Military experience, his fortune and his reputation, his pieces (tall burly 1.9 m), the Administrator talent and - above all else - the establishment and nature of the firm, so that it can sustain that position. Throughout the battle done without reward money, and give examples of selfless devotion. 

The success of Washington's most prominent around the completion in 1775 when he led the Continental army and in the month of March 1797 when the presidency was the 2nd ending. He breathed his last at his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia, in December 1799. 

The position of the key that determines in order to establish the United States departed from the three kinds of roles he played. 

First, he was a successful military leader in the war of American independence. It is true, Washington is not a military genius, is not more prominent than Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar. However, keep in mind, while many Americans suffer heavy defeat commander, Washington (despite having also some minor losses) is still able to continue the battle and carry the banner of victory. 

Second, Washington became chairman of the constitutional convention. Although the ideas Washington does not play a determining role in the drafting of the American Constitution, but his encouragement, his good name, once when determining approval. At that time there was a challenge to the new constitution, and that without the influence of Washington feels it difficult to accept the constitution. 

Third, Washington was the first president of the Republic of the United States. United States actually decent feel lucky to have the first president to have a great weight and strong character. Just take a look and compare with so many examples of countries in Latin America and Africa which although established through basic democratic constitution but very fast degenerating into a military dictatorship. While Washington has firmly maintain the republic of divisions without accompaniment ambition kept in power. He was not willing to be a king or a dictator. He was the one who instilled the rules need to transfer power from one hand to the other through peaceful means. This way still practiced in the United States today. 

George Washington was not pure and sharp thinker as well as leaders of other Americans of his time such as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin. However, he is superior to all of them. You see, Washington - both times of war and times of peace - always give a donation in the form of strength of character in the leadership of the government, that without him there would be no political measures were successful. Madison shares a role in the formation of the Republic of the United States is important, but in this connection what Washington was nearly as important and decide. 

Inclusion of George Washington in this blog is largely dependent on the establishment of a historical assessment of the Republic of the United States. Determination is not in favor of the significance of the founding of the United States certainly hard done by an American who lived today. Although the United States mid-20th century holds the position of military superiority and political influence even greater than what was once owned by the Roman Empire at the peak of its power, but political power does not last long as a Roman. On the contrary, it is clear that some of the technological advances achieved the United States are considered to have great significance by other cultures and other times. The discovery of aircraft - for example - and the human landing on the moon has been to realize the dream of times past and it seems inconceivable that the invention of nuclear weapons can be proven. 

Because George Washington an American political figure in general can be attributed to Augustus Caesar of Rome, it seems worth putting Washington position in the list is almost adjacent to Augustus. If Washington is placed further down, this is solely due to shorter tenure than the reign of Augustus, and as many figures (such as Thomas Jefferson and James Madision) also play an important role in the formation of the Republic of the United States. However, the position of the order of George Washington is higher than figures such as Alexander the Great and Napoleon because of the work of Washington and the successes he has done so has a range of influence even further and sustainable.

±250-337 The Great Constantin

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This figure first Roman Emperor who converted to Christianity. Through convert it and the various ways by which this development, he holds a prominent role in the change of religion of Christianity which are pursued and threatened punishment became the dominant religion in Europe. 
Constantine was born about AD 280 in the city of Naissus (now called Nis) in the country which is now Yugoslavia. His father was a high-ranking officer, and Constantine spent his youth in Nicomedia, where the court of Emperor Diocletian was. 

Diocletian ascended the throne in 305, and Constantine's father --Constantius - became ruler in west half of the Roman Empire. When Constantius died in the following year, Constantine declared emperor by his soldiers. However, other generals at odds with each other about this coronation and even civil war was inevitable. The war ended in 312 when Constantine defeated by his opponent who still survive --Maxentius-- in a battle at the Milvian bridge near Rome. 

Can not be certain when Constantine entered Christianity. The stories are commonly heard say, on the eve of the battle at Milvian Bridge, Constantine saw a cross burning in the sky and says "By this sign you will be able to conquer." No matter when he entered Christianity, Constantine did much for the advancement of Christianity. One step is to make pemulanya Act Milan. With this legislation Christianity a legal religion and religion is tolerated. The law also allows the return of the wealth of the Church that had been seized in the past of annihilation and ransacked in the past. Also declared Sunday as a day of worship. 

Milan legislation is not based solely by the attitude of religious tolerance. Instead, the government Constantine can be considered as a sign of beginning the persecution of the Jews that continued in Christian Europe in the coming centuries. 

Constantine never made Christianity the official religion of the state. However, through regulatory and political measures he is clearly driving the development of this religion. In the reign obviously, those who entered the open door of her Christian means in terms of ease up the career ladder in government. And decisions issued by Constantine also gives immunity and privileges for the church. Similarly, he built the famous churches in the world - such as the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem church and the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Dar-essalam. All of this church was built during the reign of Constantine. 

The role of the Roman Emperor Constantine as the Christian religion by itself makes him entitled listed in this list. However, some actions to contain the effects of distant futures. For example, he is restoring and expanding the city of Byzantium, and replaced with the name of Constantinople (now called Istanbul) is one of the largest cities in the world and remains the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire until 1453, and several centuries later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. 

Constantine also plays an important role in the internal history of the church. Involved in the dispute between the followers of Arius and Athonius (two Christian theologians who propose a different doctrine), Constantine called the Council meeting Nicola (in 325), the first church council proceedings. Constantine the Council take part actively, can solve the dispute with accepted Nicene Doctrine, which later became the orthodox doctrine of the church. 

It is another important role in the preparation of the relationship of civil regulations. Constantine made ​​legislation governing corporations hereditary (like Joqal, bakers). Issuance of edict that also set the "colony" (peasant class) barred from leaving cultivated fields. In the modern sense of this decree means change "colony" (tenant farmers) became slaves, bound to the land. This decree and other rules of the foundation stone of the whole social structure in medieval Europe. 

Constatine not baptized until he lay in bed in a state of dying, though clearly he had entered Christianity long before that. However, along with it is also true that the soul of his christianity faded completely. Although the size of the time, he was so violent and cruel. This attitude is not directed solely to his opponents. By reasons that are less clear, he punished his wife and son in 326. 

Can be questioned, the acceptance of Christianity before Constantine does not alter the course of history, but merely endorse the things that are inevitable. In addition, although Biocletian Emperor (reigned from AD 284-305) has done a great pressure against Christianity, his efforts to make religion was not successful because at the time of Christianity is far more powerful than the forces that will hit even with violent acts, however. Posible the people consider Biocletian crush depleted experimental failure of Christianity and religion though it could win without interfering Constantine at all. Supposition and speculation as it is interesting, but not convincing and uncertain. It is difficult to imagine what would happen without Constantine. It is increasingly clear, with his encouragement, Christianity spread well on the size and number of the following areas of influence. From the small group that does not mean only a period of a century became the established religion and has great influence in the world. 

Evidently already, Constantine is a pivot figure in European history. Its place in the order of the list is higher than the figures of Alexander the Great, Napoleon and Hitler because of his influence that has a long reach.

1736-1819 James Watt

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James Watt, the Scottish inventor who is often associated with the steam engine, is the key figure of the Industrial Revolution. 
Actually, Watt is not the first to raise a steam engine. Similar draft drawn also by Hero of Alexandria in the early AD. In 1686 Thomas Savery patented a raise a steam engine used for pumping water, and in the year 1712, an Englishman Thomas Newcomen, also raise a patent similar items with a more perfect version, but the creation of the Newcomen engine still low quality and less efficient, can only used to pump water from coal mines. 
Watt became interested in the affairs of the steam engine in 1764 when he was correcting the creation Newcomen engine. Although Watt only get a year of education as a tool builder, but he's got great talent creator. Perfection by doing the Newcomen engine homemade is so important, so it is worth consider actual creator Wattlah first practical steam engine. 

Watt patented the first success in 1769 was the addition of a separate space reinforced. She also raise a separator insulation to prevent heat dissipation in the steam cylinder, and in 1782 he invented the double. With some minor improvements, this update increased efficiency resulted in a steam engine with a four-fold or more. In practice, this efficiency improvement is the result of an intelligence but is not so useful equipment nor have exceptional usability judging from the corner of the industry. 

Watt also found (in 1781) a set of serrations to change the engine so forth motion into rotating motion. This tool massively increase the use of steam engines. Watt also managed to create an automatic circular motion controller style (in 1788), which causes the engine speed can be automatically monitored. Also creates a pressure gauge (1790), speedo tools, equipment instructions and vapor control equipment in addition to other repair equipment. 

Watt himself had no business talent. However, in 1775 he did a fellowship with Matthew Boulton, an engineer, and an entrepreneur who deftly. For twenty-five years after that, the company Watt and Boulton to produce a large number of steam engines and both become rich. 

Invention of the steam engine to work double 1769

It is difficult to overstate the importance of the steam engine. Therefore, there are many other inventions which plays an important role to encourage the development of the Industrial Revolution. For example, the development of mining, metallurgy, and various machine tools. Lifeboats were sliding back and forth in a weaving machine (John Kay's invention in 1733), or the loom (the invention of James Hargreaves in 1764) are all going ahead Watt creations. The vast majority of the findings were simply a less significant improvement and none had a vital significance in terms of beginning of the Industrial Revolution. As with the invention of the steam engine which plays an important role in the Industrial Revolution, the situation seems to be experiencing another form. Previously, although the steam is used for windmills and water rotation, the principal source of mechanical power lies in human power. These factors severely limit the production capacity of the industry. Thanks to the invention of the steam engine, this limitation is eliminated. Large amounts of energy can now be channeled to productive things that climb with extremely swift. Oil embargo of 1973 made ​​us realize how miserable if reduced energy and material capable of crippling the industry. This experience, at some level, encourages us to imagine the significance of the Industrial Revolution thanks to the invention of James Watt. 

In addition to the benefits for the power plant, steam engines also have a large order in the other areas. In 1783, the Marquis de Jouffroy in Abbans successfully used a steam engine to drive the ship. In 1804, Richard Trevithick created the first steam locomotive. None of the models that beginners succeed commercially. Within a few decades, then both ships and trains produce a revolution in the field of transportation of both land and sea. 

The Industrial Revolution took place almost simultaneously with the American Revolution and the French. Though it seems trivial, it seems clear now how the Industrial Revolution as outlined has much more important meaning for human life fairy significance than political revolution. James Watt, therefore, classified as one of those who had an important influence in history.