Saturday, September 27, 2014

Paper Founder, Tsa liun ( 105 )

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Ts'ai Lun inventor of paper material most likely a foreign name that sounded in the ears of the reader. Considering how important inventions, it is very surprising Westerners underestimate granted. Not a few large encyclopedia not a word put her name goods. This is really outrageous. Judging from the angle of the importance of usability is very rare Ts'ai Lun paper mentioned can lead to suspicion lest Ts'ai Lun a figure erratic and unreliable presence or absence. However, careful investigation proved by Ts'ai Lun is absolutely clear that it is really there and not some genie in a fairy tale. 

He was a civil servant at the royal court in the year 105 AD to present examples of paper to the Emperor Ho Ti. Note Ts'ai Lun of China on this (found in the writing of the official history of the Han dynasty) completely forthright and trustworthy, without the slightest scent of magic or legend. Chinese people always connect the name Ts'ai Lun inventor of paper and his name famous throughout China. 

Not much is known about the life of Ts'ai Lun, unless there is mention he was a eunuch. There were also the emperor extremely excited by Ts'ai Lun, and he made ​​it up the ranks, knighted and can itself be financiers. However, later he was involved in a plot that drags anti palace to his downfall. Chinese records mention --safter he had been expelled-- Ts'ai Lun clean bath, wearing the most beautiful dress, and then drank poison. 

The use of paper spread all over China in the 2nd century, and the Chinese have been able beberapaabad paper exported to Asian countries. For a long time China's secretive way of fabrication of this paper. In 751 years, what is immoral, some experts restorer paper captive by Arabs so that in a short time the paper is diprodusir in Baghdad and Sarmarkand. Art of papermaking gradually spread throughout the Arab world and the new in the 12th century the Europeans learned this technique. The use of paper began to spread, and after Gutenberg invented the modern printing press, paper replaced parchment as a writing material in the West. 

Now the use of paper is so general that no one could imagine how a world without paper forms. In China before Ts'ai Lun, general books made ​​from bamboo. Just awful kind of book that is too heavy and clumsy. Indeed, there is also a book that is made ​​of silk but the price is very expensive for the public. Whereas in the West there --before paper-- books were written on goat or calf skin. This material as a substitute for papyrus were favored by Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. Both parchment and papyrus, not only were scarce, but also expensive. 

Now, whether books and other written materials can be produced so cheaply and in large quantities at the same scale. This is all thanks to the paper. Indeed, the significance of the paper is not so prominent in the absence of printing machines, printing machines but otherwise was not much meaning without the presence of so much paper and so cheap. 

The question is rather improbable now: Who should be the top level sequence between Ts'ai Lun and Gutenberg? Although I consider the two of these people of almost equal importance, but finally I took the decision of Ts'ai Lun rate was slightly higher in the order than Gutenberg. My reasons for this: (1) Paper used many materials solely for writing. (2) Ts'ai Lun may precede Gutenberg and Gutenberg printing press to make unthinkable if only paper not found. (3) If only one of them do the creation, I guess without any machine creation Gutenberg books can still today be produced through block printing system (which has long been known long before Gutenberg) through a combination of paper rather than through a combination with sheepskin. 

Is the place to enter both Ts'ai Lun and Gutenberg in the order of most influential people in the world? In order to realize the full importance of the invention of paper and printing, it is necessary to understand the development of Western culture and Chinese. Before entering the 2nd century AD Chinese culture is still in tarap lower than Western culture. But in a thousand years AD, the progress China has exceeded the West even in the 7th century and the 8th Chinese culture in many ways is the most advanced cultures in the world. After the 15th century AD, West China speeding left behind. Various cultural completion of these changes has been developed, but the theories seem to ignore one important aspect that is precisely what I believe the simplest explanation. 



Bamboo pieces washed and dipped into the water right as a preliminary step fabrication of paper preparation. 

Certainly true, agriculture and writing developed earlier in the Middle East than China. But this is not an answer because what Chinese culture is so slow and behind that. An abstruse problem, in my opinion, before the Ts'ai Lun is no one else writing quality in China. In the Western world Papyrus was available, and although it suffered a setback materials, papyrus rolls and an unlimited number of books written better quality than on the wood or bamboo. Shortage of material to write a major obstacle progress of Chinese culture. A Chinese scholar need a wheelbarrow to carry a number of books it deems helpful. Imagine the difficulty of trying to regulate the administration of government with such circumstances. 

Invention of paper by Ts'ai Lun overhauled the state. With a number of writing materials available, Chinese culture jumped up so quickly that in just a few centuries the West has been able to keep up. Naturally, the political divisions in the West became an important cause, but this was not the main cause. In the 4th century AD China was politically fragmented, but I'll keep moving forward with a culture so quickly. In the following centuries, when progress in halting the West, China actually managed to achieve important discoveries such as the compass, explosives, and how to print with blocks. Since the paper falls cheaper than goat skin and can be obtained in large quantities, the state is now reversed. 

After Western people started using paper, they are able to sit down face to face with China, even succeeded in narrowing the cultural gap. Marco Polo's writings emphasized his belief that even in the 13th century AD China was far above Europe in terms of prosperity. 

Why then China is behind Europe? Various complex cultural explanations have been attempted, but perhaps a simple technology that can find the answer. In the 15th century in Europe, a genius named Johann Gutenberg invented a way to produce a book as much as possible. As a result of this discovery, European culture thrive. Because China does not have people like Gutenberg, China persisted with block printing their culture progressed more slowly. 



Bamboo rod squash 

Raise a sheet of paper 

Pressing a sheet of paper 

Drying the paper sheet 



If one accepts the analysis above, he can not be forced to the conclusion that Ts'ai Lun and Gutenberg are two humans, a central figure in world history. 

Indeed, Ts'ai Lun was in the front row of the other inventors for several reasons. Most inventions are a product of his time and could well happen even if the person who actually invented them had never lived. However, this situation is not entirely applicable to the issues paper. The Europeans do not start producing paper for thousands of years after Ts'ai Lun. They had an open mind and membikinnya after learning the process from the Arabs. In this connection, even after they had witnessed how the Chinese manufacturing paper, other Asian nations were never able to produce it. Clearly, the discovery of how to produce the paper is not an easy job, can not just be carried out by a moderately advanced culture, but closely related to the contribution of some individuals who have tremendous advantages. Ts'ai Lun was a model of their kind, and the method of paper making which does (aside from being introduced around the year 1800 AD) is essentially the same as what people are up to now. 

This is the reason why Michael H hart put both Ts'ai Lun and Gutenberg are both in the order of the first ten persons in this book, with Ts'ai Lun ahead of Gutenberg.

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