Originate from a simple family, Muhammad founded and promulgated one of the world's largest religion, Islam. And at the same time appearing as a tough leader, pure, and effective. Now, thirteen centuries after his death, his influence is still strong and deep and rooted.
Most of the people listed in this book is the advantage of being born and raised in centers of civilization, and the turnover high berkultur political nations. Muhammad was born in 570 AD, in the city of Mecca, in southern Arabia, a place that time was the most backward regions in the world, far from the centers of trade, art and science. Being an orphan at the age of six years, grew up in the situation around the modest and humble. Islamic sources tells us that he was illiterate. The new economic situation began to improve at the age of twenty-five years old when he married a widow was. However, until near the age of forty barely visible clue as human keluarbiasaannya.
Generally, when the Arabs did not embrace a particular religion except pagan Mecca In a small number of followers-followers of Judaism and Christianity, and the greater the likelihood of Muhammad for the first time they heard about the existence of the Almighty God, who set the entire universe. When he was forty years old, Muhammad was confident that the Almighty God is to communicate something to him and chose to become spreaders of right belief.
For three years Muhammad spread the religion only limited to close friends and relatives. 613 when entering the new year he began to appear in public. Once he has his followers little by little, the ruler of Mecca looked at him as a dangerous person, restorer troublemakers. In the year 622, worried about his safety, Muhammad fled to Medina, the city north of Mecca is 200 miles. In that city he was offered a position of considerable political power to convince.
The event moved an important turning point for the life of the Prophet. In Mecca he was difficult to obtain a small number of followers, and followers in Medina growing at a brisk pace so that he can gain the influence that make it a real power holders. In subsequent years while the followers of Muhammad unfolding everywhere like mushrooms, a series of battles broke out between Mecca and Medina. The war ended in 630 with Muhammad's victory at the party, returned to Mecca as conqueror. The remaining two and a half years of his life he witnessed tremendous progress in terms of rapid Arab tribes embraced Islam. And when Muhammad died in 632, he had made sure he was as effective ruler across the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula.
Bedewi tribes have a tradition passed down through generations as the soldiers are tough and brave. However, their number is not a lot and always tempted divisions and confront each other with each other. That's why they can not outperform the army of the kingdoms established in agricultural areas in the northern hemisphere. But, Muhammad first person in history, thanks to a strong boost of confidence to the oneness of God, the tiny Arab forces capable of astonishing series of conquests in human history. In the northeast of Arabia stood Sassanids Persian Empire wide. In northwestern Arabia stood Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire with Constantinople as its center.
Judging from the number and size, clear Arabic would not be able to deal with it. However, on the battlefield, the Arab forces were burning zeal with lightning strokes can conquer Mesopotamia, Syrians, and Palestinians. In 642 Egypt wrested from the grip of the Byzantine Empire, and while the Persian army beaten in a fateful battle in Qadisiya 637 years and 642 years in Nehavend.
However, large-scale conquest under the leadership --di companions of the Prophet and his successor Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab-- it does not show signs stop stop there. In 711, the Arab armies had swept away North Africa up to the edge of the Atlantic Ocean. From there they turned north and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and berated the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.
At first glance people think the Muslims will have to root out all the Christians of Europe. But in the year 732, in a battle that is famous and powerful in Tours, the Muslim troops who had advanced into the center of the country of France in the end beaten by the Franks. Even so, only a century secuwil battle, these people Bedewi -dijiwai the sayings of the Prophet Mohammad has founded an empire stretching from the Indian border to the edge of the white sand beaches of the Atlantic Ocean, a greatest empire ever known to human history. And where was the conquest carried out by Muslim forces, always followed by a crowd bondongnya enter Islam followers.
Apparently, not all of it is permanent conquest of the region. The Persians, although still remain faithful followers of Islam, regaining its independence from Arab hands. And in Spain, after over seven centuries of warfare finally successfully recaptured by the Christians. Meanwhile, Mesopotamia and Egypt, the birthplace of two ancient cultures, remains in the hands of the Arab as well as the entire northern coast of Africa. Islam, of course, continued to spread from one century to another century, stepping away from the conquered areas. Generally scattered millions of adherents of Islam in Africa, Central Asia, especially Pakistan and northern India and Indonesia. In Indonesia, the new Islamic religion is a unifying factor. In the Indian subcontinent, almost the opposite: the presence of the new religion was the main cause of the break up.
Is Prophet Muhammad influence the most basic to human history? As with other religions, Islam has an enormous influence on its adherents. That is why the spreader-spreader in the world's major religions can all places in this book. If measured by the number, the number of adherents of Christianity twice the size of the adherents of Islam, with a question mark arises what is the reason to put the order of the Prophet Mohammed is higher than Prophet Jesus in the list. There are two main reasons that so my grip. First, Muhammad played a far more important role in the development of Islam than the role of Prophet Jesus to Christianity. Even Prophet Jesus is responsible for the basic teachings of Christian morals and ethics (to some extent different from Judaism), St. Paul is the main character of Christian theology spreader, penyebarnya figure, and writer largest part of the Old Testament.
Instead Muhammad is not only responsible for the theology of Islam but it also points to the ethical and moral. Additionally he "registrar" Scripture Koran, a collection of revelations to Muhammad that he believed came directly from God. The vast majority of this revelation earnestly copied during Muhammad's time and then collected in a form that does not tergoyangkan shortly after he died. Al-Quran is thus closely related to the views of Muhammad and his teachings because he relied on God's revelation. In contrast, none of which are so detailed collection of the teachings of Jesus that can still be found in the present. Because the Koran for Muslims more or less just as important as the gospel for the Christians, the influence of Muhammad through the medium of the Koran teramatlah magnitude. Possible influence of Muhammad in Islam is greater than the influence of Jesus and St. Paul in the Christian world combined. Measured from purely religious angle, the effect seems to be on par with Muhammad Isa in the history of humanity.
Furthermore (unlike Jesus) Muhammad is not only religious leaders but also leaders of the world. The fact is, as the driving force of the motion which carried Arab conquest, the influence of political leadership are in a leading position all the time.
Of various historical events, one might say it could have happened without the leadership of someone special their heads. For example, the colonies in South America might be able to free themselves from colonialism Spain even if Simon Bolivar had never existed in the world. However, this example does not apply to the motion of the Arab conquest. There is no similar incidents before Muhammad, and there is no reason to deny that the conquest could happen and successful without Muhammad. The only similarity in terms of conquests in human history in the 13th century thanks to the influence of the most terpokok Genghis Khan. This conquest, although wider scope than what the Arabs, could not prove stability, and now the only areas occupied by the Mongols are just the same region before the time of Genghis Khan
It clearly shows a large difference with the conquest by the Arabs. Stretching from Iraq to Morocco, stretching chain united Arab nation, not only to the Islamic fad but also from the Department of Arabic, history and culture. The central position of the Quran among the Muslims and written in Arabic, the likely reason why the Arabic language is not fragmented into different dialects. If not, may already be happening in l3 century. The difference and division into several Arab countries-certainly would occur only-and in fact did so, but the divisions that are in parts it do not necessarily make us negligent that their union is still tangible. But, both Iran and Indonesia are both populous Muslim country and second oil producer, did not join in the attitude of the oil embargo in the winter of 1973 - 1974 is not the stuff Conversely coincidence if all the Arab countries, Arab countries solely, which took oil embargo step.
So, we may see, the conquest of the Arabs in the 7th century continues to play an important role in the history of mankind today. From this aspect I assess the incomparable combination between the terms religion and worldly terms attached to the influence of Muhammad so I think Muhammad was a private in the sense of the most influential men in human history