Monday, September 29, 2014

356-323 BC The Great Alexander

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Alexander the Great, the famous conqueror of the world was born in Pello past year 356 BC, the Macedonian capital. His father, King Philip II of Macedonia man who had the ability and far-sighted. Philip enlarge and organize the Macedonian Armed Forces and turn them into high-quality fighting force. The first time the use of this option is the Armed Forces when he conquered the surrounding area to get to northern Greece, then turned south and conquered nearly the whole of Greece. Philip then form a federation of Greek cities and he himself be the leader. When he again designed a plan of attack against the vast Persian Empire located in the east of Greece even invasion has already begun in the year 336 BC-Philip was killed, when she was only forty-six years to reach. 

Age Alexander was only twenty years old when his father died but without the difficulty he succeeded his father to the throne. Philip carefully away days already made ​​preparations for his successor and the young Alexander already had knowledge and considerable military experience. In terms of intellectual education was Philip not ignore it. Teachers make Alexander provided a special father: Aristotle, a man of most scholars and philosophers probably the most famous in the ancient world. 

Both in Greece and the areas around the north, the population of the conquered Philip looked Philip's death is a great opportunity to dispel Macedonia and subverting the power grip. However, in just two years after the accession to the throne, Alexander has been able to overcome those regions. After that attention is diverted to the Persian. 

For two thousand years the Persians controlled a vast territory, stretching from the Mediterranean to India. Although Persia was no longer in the peak of his prowess, but still remains a formidable opponent and respected, the most extensive empire, the most powerful and richest on earth. 

Alexander launched his first attack to Persia in 334 BC. Because he had to set aside some of its troops in the country to maintain and oversee its European inilik, Alexander only had 35 000 soldiers accompanying a dangerous adventure when he did, a number of small, insignificant when compared to the power of the Persian Army. In addition to a number of misfortunes that befall him, Alexander won a series of victories against Persian forces in gempurannya. There are three factors were the cause of his victory. First, the troops left behind his father, Philip, really well-trained and organized, better than the Persians. Second, Alexander himself a warlord genius, perhaps the most genius of all time. Third, Alexander's own courage. Although he led the first stages of the battle behind the front lines, Alexander is leading his own decision cavalry gave decisive blow. This is a risky way and he was often injured in battle like this kind. But his troops witnessed with my own eyes that Alexander did not really abysmal face of danger and do not want to impose a risk on the shoulders of others. This brings a direct result in improving the morale of soldiers convincing. 

Alexander led his troops first hit Asia Minor, strike hard tiny Persian army stationed there. Then he moved north Syria, crush large Persian army at Issus city. then he turned toward invaded the south, and after heavy and hard fought throughout the seven months, he managed to conquer the island city of Tyre Phoenicia is now called Lebanon. When Alexander was fighting in Tyre, he received a message from the King of Persia offers half his kingdom if only for Alexander Alexander willing to agree to a peace treaty. One of the generals of Alexander, Parmenio, considers good and decent offer accepted. "If I were Alexander, I accepted the offer." What responsibility Alexander? "So did I, if I was named Parmenio." 

After the fall of Tyre, Alexander continued movement to the south. Gaza fell after fighting for two months. Egypt surrendered without fighting anything. After occupying Egypt, Alexander settled for a while just to give time for the rest of his soldiers. In the country, although he was only twenty-four years, he was given the title of Pharaoh's grace and crowned as gods. After the break is enough, Alexander and his army moved again back to the mainland of Asia, and in the battle of life and death that determines at Arbela in 331 BC, he had completely paralyze most of the Persian army. 

After the resounding victory of Alexander brought his army to Babylon and break into Persian cities, Suso and Persepolis. Persian King Darius III (rather than his predecessor Darius the Great) was killed by his officers in the year 330 BC to prevent surrender to Alexander. Even so, Alexander defeated and killed substitute Darius, and in the battle for three years, he has conquered all the eastern parts of Iran and urged continued into Central Asia. 

With all of the Persian Empire was under the soles of his feet, Alexander should take the decision to return home to his country and organizing his territory. But, thirsty conquest unbearable, because he continued his assault on Afghanistan. From there he led his army across the Hindu Kush mountains to India. He acquired a large run of wins in the western part of India and intends to continue his assault on the eastern part of India. But, his troops were tired and struggling for years due to fighting, and refused to continue the raid. So reluctantly Alexander returned to Persia. 

After returning to Persia, Alexander spent about a year organizing the army and the empire under their control. Alexander grew up with the belief that Greek culture is the only culture that is superior and the thumb and all the nations who are not Greek is none other than the barbarians. The belief is certainly widespread scattered throughout the realm of the mind and the Greek world, even Aristotle himself thought so. However, despite its success quell exhausted the Persian army, Alexander realized the Persians was not a barbarian, and the Persians could be equally capable and equally good with the Greeks. Therefore Alexander contains the intention to merge the two into one empire, and dijelmakannya culture combined with the formation of the Graeco-Persian empire with her ​​own course was in top leadership of the ruling. As far as we can ascertain, he wishes that the Persians serious an equal partner with the people of Greece and Macedonia. In order to implement this plan, he put a lot of Persians into the Armed Forces. He also had a party what he called "Marriage of East and West" in which thousands of Macedonian army officially marrying the daughters of Asia. He himself, despite his wife to marry a noble lady of Asia before, marry the daughter of Darius. 

Palpable once, Alexander intends to conduct additional conquest by the Armed Forces who have organized this back. We know, he intends to conquer Arabia, and perhaps also the area located in northern Persia. And maybe he already had plans to occupy India or invade Rome, Carthago and parts of the Mediterranean. No matter how the plan is structured, which is certainly no longer the next conquest. In early June of the year 323 BC when Alexander was in Babylon, all of a sudden he had a fever and he died ten days later. At that time not yet reached age thirty-three years. 

Alexander did not appoint a successor, and soon after he began to happen there is no power struggle. In this struggle, his mother, his wife, his children are all killed. Kingdom was divided among his generals. 

Because Alexander died in a very young age and was never defeated, a lot of speculation whether the hell would happened if the length of his age. When he took his army invaded and conquered areas west Mediterranean Sea, most likely he will succeed, and in this case the entire history of Western Europe will experience major changes. But this speculation-no matter how attractive has nothing to do with the actual success that has been achieved. 

Regions Empire of Alexander the Great 

Alexander may be an extremely dramatic figure in history, and his personal career remain a source of wonder. The evidence is quite dramatic career success and dozens of fairy tales have sprung up concerning his name. And once it has become clear ambition to be the biggest warriors and conquerors of all time, and it seems well-deserved nickname he acquired it. As individual fighters, the capabilities and covered her courage. As a general, he is extremely accomplished, as long as eleven years of fighting, never once did he lose stuff. 

At the same, he is an intellectual who studied under the tutelage of master Aristotle and Homer's poems. In terms of realizing the idea that the nation is not necessarily non-Greek barbarians, clearly shows that the mind has the power to reach farther than most of the Greek thinkers of the time. 

But, on the other hand, Alexander had a narrow view. Although he repeatedly at risk in battle, he did not prepare his successor. Negligence that is the cause of his empire fell apart so quickly after he dies. 

Alexander considered likely handsome face, and he was often very generous to the defeated enemy. On the other hand, he was also an "egomaniac" and a vicious temper. On one occasion, in a quarrel in an unconventional sense, he killed his close friend, Clertus, a man who once saved his life. 

Just as Napoleon and Hitler, Alexander had a tremendous influence on his generation. Short period of influence, a more concise than they, solely because of limited means to travel to and fro, and communication at the time limit and minimize its impact on the world. 

In the long run, the most important effect of the conquest of Alexander the Greek culture is closer to the Middle East, so that each one gets benefits to supplement and enhance their culture. During and shortly after the careers of Alexander, Greek culture quickly spread to Iran, Mesopotamia, Syria, Judea, and Egypt. Before Alexander, Greek culture was already penetrated into these regions but 

with slow. Also, the influence of Alexander spread Greek culture to India and Central Asia, areas previously unexplored. However, the cultural influence is not the only valid means one-sided and the majors. In the Hellenistic centuries (centuries immediately after the steps of Alexander) East ideas-particularly-religious ideas spread to the Greek world. With this Hellenistic culture was dominant but it actually seems to Greece East immense influence of the mind upon the influence of Rome. 

In the period of his career, Alexander established more than twenty-one new city. The most famous of all is Alexandria (Alexandria) in Egypt that the tempo is fast becoming the leading city in the world and is a center of culture and education are famous. Others such as Herat and Kandahan in Afghanistan also developed into important cities. 

Alexander, Napoleon, and Hitler had felt the weight of his influence in the equation in general. People will be impressed, however, the influence of the latter two lifetimes shorter than Alexander. On this basis he can place the order a little bit more on.

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