Saturday, September 27, 2014

259-210 BC Shi Huang Ti The Conqueror

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Chinese emperor Shih Huang Ti big of years 238-210 BC unify China by force of arms, and laid the foundation reforms-reforms. This reshuffle is a major factor in cultural unification of China until now. 

Shih Huang Ti (also known by the nickname of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti) was born in 259 BC and died in 210 BC. To understand the importance of personal, first we need to know the historical background of his time. He was born at the end of the Chou dynasty was founded around 1100 BC. Centuries before his time, the Chou dynasty had lost its efficacy as a ruler, and China split into numerous feudal states. 

Various feudal kings hentinyabertempur endlessly with each other, and slowly wither away some small ruler. One of the most powerful country always fisticuffs that Ch'in, in the west part of China. Ch'in kingdom leaders embrace the philosophical school of legalists that form the basis of the state. Kong Hu-Cu suggest that the population is ruled by example paragon character of its leaders. But, according to the legalist school of philosophy, not enough good people governed in a way that demonstrated Kong Hu-Cu, because it is not possible tobe applied. Better, the people closely watched through hard rules and forced indiscriminately. Laws and rules laid down by the authorities and the authorities may need to change if he sees a future for domestic political purposes. 

It could be caused by holding on to the idea of ​​legalists, it could be also due to the location of its geographic position, or it could be due to the ability of Ch'in leadership, the country became the most powerful country among the countries of the kingdom in China at the time of Cheng (Shih Huang Ti offspring in the future ) was born. Cheng symbolically ascended the throne in 246 BC at the age of thirteen, but in practice a government board to Cheng holds quite mature in the year 238 BC. The new king was lifted capable generals and with a burning passion devour feudal lands were still living. Feudal country last fall in 221 BC, and after that he could proclaim themselves as Wang (king) throughout China. Just to give weight, in order to cut their business ties with the past, he wears a new title and call himself Shih Huang Ti which means "first emperor." 

Shih Huang Ti immediately rushed make major changes. Based on the determination prevents diffusion divorce again China that has damaged the royal Chou, he decided to wipe out all the feudal system of government. Territory under their control-divided into 36 provinces for him, and in each province appointed a civilian governor directly appointed by the emperor. Shih Huang Ti provincial governor issued a decree that is not longer based on descent. As a result of this decision, there was a habit of flipping the governor of one province to another province to prevent the possibility of an ambitious local officials and develop a power base for the benefit of himself. Each province also has a military leader, appointed by the emperor and at times can be moved at any time he pleases. In addition to the appointment of the three officials also maintain a balance between the civil governor and military governor. He builds roads are long and neatly linking the capital with the cities of the province. The highway was constructed in such a way --on economic side-- meaning also at times can be used to move troops to the central areas in case a lot of behavior and try to make trouble that could interfere with the integrity and stability of the power center. Shih Huang Ti did not forget announce-aristocratic aristocratic rule for surviving long to settle in the capital Hsieng that with the intention that they can be easily monitored his movements. 

However, Shih Huang Ti is not satisfied until there. He was not satisfied just to political unity and military affairs alone, but also seeks to raise its economic unity. He determines the norms of good size for weighing scales and long for something. He set the standard currency, all kinds of equipment, vehicle length and width as well as overseeing the construction of roads and water channels. And he also establishes a uniform legal system for all of China following standard written language. 

The most famous emperor actions (or perhaps the most popular) is issuing regulations that require year 213 BC in China burn all books except the books that deals with the problem of agriculture, medicine, history of the state of Ch'in and books philosophy book written by authors legalist ideology adherents. More --Not except books of Kong Hu-Cu-- doctrine must be destroyed. With the issuance of this rule may miss the first example of the existence of large-scale sensor in history. She intends to confront his opponent exhausted philosophies, especially schools of Kong Hu Cu. However, Shih Huang Ti ordered copying banned books and are stored in the library in the capital. 

Foreign policy is no less hard and strong. He did conquest in southern China, and the conquered areas incorporated into the Chinese territory. Also in the northern and western troops succeeded, but he was unable to subdue the population permanently. To prevent it from being attacked China, Shih Huang Ti connecting various local walls that are already on the border of northern China to become a giant wall lines. Great Wall of China was still intact there until now. Construction of this project following battles with outsiders, charging residents with high taxes, and this made ​​him unpopular. Since the uprising against his iron rule is not possible, a series of acts people do to spend his life. However, none of these assassination attempts were successful, and Shih Huang Ti died naturally in 210 BC. 

Great Wall of China 

Emperor's son replaced both titled Erh Shih Huang Ti. However, the child does not have the ability to father, because it was some rebellion erupted. Within four years he was killed. Dibumihangus royal library, and fully Ch'in dynasty overthrown. 

However, the work of Shi Huang Ti effort that has been the completion is not useless. The Chinese government is tyrannical good cheer is over, but, in no small part a desire to return to the atmosphere of anarchy as the past. The next dynasty (Han dynasty) continued the basic administrative system that enforced by Ch'in Shih Huang Ti. And indeed, in fact, throughout the twenty-first century imperial China continuing lines that have been laid. Despite the harsh legal system Ch'in immediately softened by the emperor of the Han dynasty, and even throughout the legalist philosophy has been shunned and Confucianism into another state philosophy, political and cultural unification that has been built by Shih Huang Ti is not faded. 

Overall, Shih Huang Ti significance for China never mind ablaze. Westerners always fascinated by the large size of the Chinese, but it is not generally true throughout history larger than the population of Europe. The difference is, Europe always fragmented into small states, while China is united into a large country. This difference appears due to political factors and social, rather than due to geographic factors, for example in the case of long distance mountain in China is not much different from what exists in Europe. Erratic course, the unification of China can not be considered solely a work Shih Huang Ti. Many people --example: Sui Wen Ti-- also play an important role, but it is not necessary Shih Huang Ti undoubtedly the most important of which is important. He is the central point. 

Speaking of Shih Huang Ti is not completely perfect without mentioning intelligent prime minister and terrific, Li Ssu. Indeed, so important influences on the decision-making Li Ssu emperor so difficult to tell which is more decisive of the two involves major changes that occur. To avoid the difficulty there teller teller here, I set all services to their combined actions Shih Huang Ti. (After all, even if Li Ssu ask advice, the last word is on the emperor). 

Shih Huang Ti, among others inflicted burn books, condemned by writers generally berfaham Kong Hu-Cu in the rear. They condemn it as a tyrant, kedukun-dukunan, full of superstition, blasted, bitch boy and capable abysmal. In contrast, the Chinese Communists generally adore him as a progressive thinker. Western writers sometimes compare Shih Huang Ti with Napoleon. However, it seems he is more akin to Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman empire. Empire they founded many have little resemblance in size and population areas. The difference, the Roman empire stands much shorter and the area was ruled by August Caesar was not able to be united in the long term. It is not so in Shih Huang Ti. That is why Shih Huang Ti had more influence than Augustus Caesar.

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