Saturday, September 27, 2014
(1818 - 1883) Karl Marx
Karl Marx, the main pioneer of the idea of "scientific socialism" was born in 1818 in the city of Trier, Germany, father and legal experts at the age of seventeen Karl entered the University of Bonn, also studied law. Later he moved to the University of Berlin and later received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Jena.
Whether it was more interested, Marx plunged into the world of journalism and became editor of the Rheinische Zeitung briefly in Cologne. But, radical political views dragged into all manner of trouble and forced him to move to Paris. That's where he first met initially with Friedrich Engels. Friendship and equality rope binding political views of these two men as a single bi until his death.
Marx could not long stay in Paris and immediately kicked out of there and be carrying a suitcase to move to Brussels. In this city, in 1847 he first published his thoughts are important and large The poverty of philosophy (philosophy Poverty). The following year joined hands together with Friedrich Engels published their Communist Manifesto, a book which eventually became the reading world. In the same year Marx returned to Cologne and then expelled again from there only every few months. After there were expelled expelled here, Marx finally crossed the Strait Canal and settled in London until his death.
Although there is only little money in his pocket thanks to the work of journalism, Marx spent a large amount of his time in London to investigate and write books on politics and economics. (In later years it was Marx and relatives can help the living expenses of his close friend Friedrich Engels). The first volume of Das Kapital, Marx's most important scientific works published in the year 1867 When Marx died in 1883, two volumes of the connection has not been fully completed. Both volumes of the connection was compiled and published oIeh Engels hold on the records and manuscripts left by Marx.
Works of Marx formulated the theoretical basis of Communism. Judging from the remarkable development of this movement in the 20th century, so it is worth if he gets a place in the high-order this book. The problem is, how high?
The main factor for this decision is the calculation of the significance of long-term Communist history. Since the growth of Communism as an integral part of contemporary history, was a little difficult to determine the future care perspective. Although no one could ascertain how far Communism can grow and how long this ideology could survive, that's for sure he is strong and tough and ideology rooted plunged into the earth, and has certainly had a major influence in the world for at least the next few centuries .
At present, about a century after Marx's death, the number of people who at least influenced by Marxism has approximately 1.3 billion number. The number of followers is greater than the number of adherents of any ideology in human history. Not just the absolute numbers, but also as a group of the world's total population. This resulted in the Communists, and also some non-Communists, believe that the future can not Marxism will triumph throughout the world. However, it is difficult to establish the truth in the belief that no bergoyah. There have been many examples of the ideology that seems very important influence in his time but eventually wither and disappear. (The religion founded by Mani could be an interesting example). If we recede into the year 1900, it would seem clear that constitutional democracy is the current fad that will be the future. Hold on to hope, it seems that way, but now no more people who believe everything has happened as the original image.
Now regarding Communism. Put a person believes so and know exactly how great the influence of Communists in the world today and in the future world, people still question the significance of Karl Marx in the Communist movement. Political government of the Soviet Union now seems not supervised by the works of Marx who wrote premises such as Hegel's dialectic style and on the theory of "surplus value." Theories seemed little influence in the political wheel rotation practices of the Soviet government, politics both within and outside the country.
Communism today emphasized four ideas: (1) A few small rich people live in luxury are abundant, while the workers are extremely numerous miserable life wallowing poor. (2) How to dismantle this injustice is to implement a socialist system, ie a system in which the means of production controlled by the state and not by a private individual. (3) In general, only the most practical way to implement socialist system is through violent revolution. (4) To maintain the continuity of the socialist system should be governed by the Communist party dictatorship in a reasonable time.
Three of the first idea was clearly articulated before Marx. While the idea of a fourth comes from the idea of Marx about the "dictatorship of the proletariat." Meanwhile, the length of the validity period of the Soviet dictatorship is now more a result of the steps of Lenin and Stalin than the ideas of Marx. This seems to lead to the assumption that the influence of Marx in the Communist smaller than actual reality, and the appreciation of the writings, more like just etalasi to justify the nature of "scholarship" rather than ideas and politics that have been implemented and accepted.
While there may be some truth in that assumption, but it seems too excessive. Lenin, for example, do not just assume he followed the teachings of Marx, but he has actually read it, live it, and accept it. He was convinced that devolved road just above the rails laid Marx. So also happen to Mao Tse Tung, and other Communist leaders. It is true, the ideas of Marx may have been misunderstood and interpreted, but this sort of thing also applies to the teachings of Jesus or Buddha or Islam. If all the political basis of China government and the Soviet Union directly from the writings of Marx, he would get a higher level of order in the book list.
Might be argued that Lenin, practical politician who actually founded the Communist state, holding a large stake in the building of Communism as an ideology that is so great influence in the world. This argument makes sense. Lenin was an important figure. But, in my opinion, Marx's writings are such a great influence on the mind not only Lenin but also other Communist leaders, clearly had a more important position.
Also there is an opportunity to debate whether the credit for the creation of Marxism should not be shared between Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They both wrote "The Communist Manifesto" and Engels clearly had a profound impact on the final settlement of Das Kapital. Although each book in its own name but intellectual collaboration so intimate that the overall results can be considered as a work together. Indeed, Marx and Engels are treated as a single unit in this book, although that included only the name of Marx because (I think I was right) he considered the dominant partner in a broad sense.
Finally, often accused person that the Marxist theory in economics is very bad and a lot wrong. Of course, many specific allegations proved Marx misses. For example, Marx predicted that the capitalist countries of the workers will be more protracted in the time travel. Obviously, this prediction is not proven. Marx also take into account that the medium will be exposed and the majority of the people will go into the proletarian class, and only a few can get up and go in the capitalist class. It was certainly never proven. Marx also seems to believe, the increasing mechanization will reduce the profits of the capitalists, the trust is not only wrong but it also looks stupid. But, regardless of whether economic theory is right or wrong, it had nothing to do with the influence of Marx. The importance of a philosopher is not the truth but his opinion is on the issue of whether his ideas have been moving people to act or not. Measured from this angle, no doubt Karl Marx had a tremendous importance wonderful.