Saturday, September 27, 2014

1809-1882 Charles Darwin

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The birth of true concurrent with Abraham Lincoln, February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Inventor Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution in the sense that natural selection was at the age of sixteen entered the University of Edinburgh to study medicine, but considered either medical or anatomical science that makes heart. Shortly thereafter he moved to Cambridge to learn the elements of office administration. Even so, hunting and riding horses in Cambridge he like much more than studying it. And even so, he yet could still attract the attention of one of the Grand Masters who encouraged him to be involved in the investigation voyage aboard the HMS Beagle as a naturalist. At first his father objected to this designation. He thought, such a trip only a pretext for Darwin are reluctant to work seriously. Fortunately, recent father could be persuaded and bless the journey which eventually turned out to be the most valuable way in the history of European science. 

Darwin began to set sail aboard the Beagle in 1831 At that time he was only twenty-two years. In the five-year voyage, the Beagle sailed the world, scour the coast of South America in the exciting pace, investigating a deserted remote Galapagos islands, penetrated Pacific islands, in the Indonesian Ocean and the southern Atlantic Ocean. In his adventure, Darwin witnessed many natural wonders, visit the primitive tribes, found a large number of fossils, examine the various kinds of plants and animals. Furthermore, he made ​​a lot of notes on anything that passes in front of his eyes. These records are the basic ingredient for almost all of his work in the future. From these records originate ideas anyway, and the events and experiences so supporting his theories. 

Darwin returned to his country in 1836 and twenty years after he published a line of books that made ​​him a prominent biologist in the UK. As from 1837 Darwin was convinced that animals and plants are not fixed, but changes in the course of geological history. At that time he was not aware of what the root cause of that evolution. In 1838 he read an essay "On the principles of population" Thomas Malthus. Malthus's book gave him facts pushing it believes the natural selection through competition to sustain life. Even after Darwin succeeded in formulating the principles of natural selection, he was not in a hurry to print and publish it. He was aware, his theory would invite challenges. Because of that, he took time to carefully prepare the evidence and put the horses to maintain a hypothesis if there is an attack. 

An outline of the theory written in 1842 and in 1844 he began to compile his book at length. In June 1858, when Darwin was still embroider and enhance the magnitude of the work book, he received a manuscript from Alfred Russel Wallace (British naturalist who was located in the East) outlined his own theory of evolution. In each issue basis, in conjunction with Wallace's theory Darwin's theory! Wallace formulate his theory actually stand on his own mind and send his manuscript to Darwin to ask for opinions and comments of the famous scientist before entering the printing. The situation became so bad that developed easy fight unwanted priority to scramble. The solution, both manuscript Wallace and the outlines of Darwin's theory simultaneously addressed by a scientific body in the next month. 

Quite astonishing, prioritization of this issue is not so ignored people. Darwin's book The Origin of Species was published the following year, causing a stir. Indeed, the reality may not exist published scientific books are so widespread and so be the subject of conversation is so warm, both scientists and laymen environment as it was in the book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the strugle for Life. Mutual argument still fun in 1871 when Darwin published The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. This book, put forward the idea that human beings originated from a type of monkey, further adds to the thrill of debate opinions. 

Darwin himself did not take part in the public debate in advance of the theory are flung. It could be due to health because after perkelanaannya so parrjang with the Beagle (most likely due to fever, caused by insect bites Chaga's disease in Latin America). And it could be because he feels quite have ardent supporter of Thomas H. Huxley's sort of a debate champion and defender of Darwin's theory, most scientists agreed the basics of Darwin's theory is concerned when niati 1882. 

Actually, who, if not talk tulen-- genuine or not is not the first inventor of Darwin's theory of organic evolution. Some people have speak out before him, including the French naturalist Jean Lamarek and Darwin's own grandfather, Erasmus Darwin. 

However, their hypothesis is never accepted by the scientific world because it was unable to give confidence how and in what manner evolution occurs. Darwin's biggest contribution is its ability to not only present the mechanism of natural selection that resulted in the evolution of nature, but he is also able to serve a lot of evidence to support the hypothesis. 

It is worth noting, Darwin's theory was formulated without any backrest genetic theory or even he did not know anything about that knowledge. In Darwin's time, no one understand how a specific particulars next generation. Although Gregor Mendel's laws is finalizing offspring in years coincided with the time Darwin wrote and published his book which makes history, the results of which support the work of Mendel's theory so perfect Darwin, Mendel was almost completely ignored until the 1900s, when Darwin's theory has been so established and steady. Thus, our modern understanding about the evolution of science, who is a combination of genetic ancestry with a more complete legal scientific-- selection than Darwin's theory proffered. 

Darwin's influence on human thought in sekah. In terms of pure science, of course, he has committed the revolutionary all aspects of biology. Natural Selection truly had an extremely broad principles and fundamental, and various experiments have been performed in various application areas such as anthropology, sociology, political science and economics. 

Even more important perhaps Darwin's influence on religious thought rather than in terms of the science or sociology. In Darwin's time, and for years afterward, many Christians believe that the faithful adherents accept Darwin's theory means lower degree of confidence in the religion. Their concern is probably unfounded because even though obviously many other factors so because of the erosion of religious belief. (Darwin himself became a secular). 

Even on the basis of secular, Darwinian theory lead to major changes in the way humans in terms of their thinking about the particulars of their world (the human race it seems) as a whole no longer occupy a central position in the natural scheme of things, as was their nature did. Now we have to see ourselves as one part only of the many creatures and we acknowledge the possibility that once the tempo will be shifted. As a result of investigations of Darwin, the view that Heraclitus said, "Nothing is permanent except change" becomes more widely accepted. Success general theory of evolution as an explanation of the origin of humans have more confidence in the ability to establish science to answer questions of the physical world (although not all human problems and human). Darwinian terms, "The strong overcome the weak" and "struggle for life" has come to be a part of our dictionary. 

Indeed, Darwin's theory will be explained as well though such as Darwin had never lived in the world. Moreover, a measure of what has been produced by Wallace, it contains very truth, anyone over the particulars listed in the book list. However, it is the writings of Darwin that has revolutionized biology and antropolgi and he who has changed our view of the place of humanity in the world.

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