Monday, September 29, 2014

1769-1821 Napoleon Bonaparte

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General and the famous French Emperor, Napoleon I, out of the womb in Ajaccio, Corsica, in 1769 the original name of Napoleon Bonaparte. Corsica entered French territory only fifteen months before Napoleon was born, and at times a nationalist teenage Corsica Napoleon who considered the French oppressors. However, Napoleon was sent in the military academy in France and when he graduated in 1785 at the age of fifteen he became a French army lieutenant. 

Four years later the French Revolution exploded and within a few years the new government of France was at war with some foreign countries. Napoleon's first chance to show his skill was in 1793, in the battle of Toulon (France recaptured the city from the hands of the UK), where Napoleon artillery duty in unity. At that time he was no longer adhered to the nationalist of Corsican understand, but already consider themselves French. Successes obtained in Toulon lift himself so brigadier general and in 1796 he was given command of the burden of responsibility so the French army in Italy. In the country, between the years 1796-1797, Napoleon also managed to seize a series of victories that made ​​him a hero when he returns to France. 

In 1798 he led an expedition of the French into Egypt. This step proved to be a catastrophe. On land, Napoleon's troops generally successful, but the British Navy under the command of Lord Nelson destroyed the French fleet steadily, and in 1799 Napoleon left his army in Egypt and returned to France. 

Once in France, Napoleon's jelly can be concluded that the French people more memorable with victories in Italy rather than the failure of the French expedition to Egypt. Hold on to this fact, only a month after he stepped on the earth of France, Napoleon took part in a power struggle with Albe Siey├Ęs and others. this brings a new government called the "Consulate" and Napoleon became the first consul. Though the constitution has been drafted carefully and received approval through a plebiscite of the people, it's just a mere guise to cover the military dictatorship of Napoleon were immediately able to nudge and paralyze his opponents. 

The rise of Napoleon to power truly amazing. Precisely in the month of August 1793, before the battle of Toulon, Napoleon totally unknown people. He is nothing more than a low officer twenty-four years old and not entirely French. However, less than six years later - still in the age of thirty years - has been transformed so that the French authorities can not be denied again, his hand position for more than fourteen years. 

In the years of his rule, Napoleon did a massive overhaul of the system of administration as well as the French law. For example, he revolutionized the financial structure and the judiciary, he established the Bank of France and the University of France, as well as centralize administration. Although each of these changes have important meaning, and in some cases had long-term influence of power, especially for the French, it has significant impact for another country. 

But one of the reforms undertaken by Napoleon have influence beyond the power of the French state itself. Namely, the preparation of which famous as the Code Napoleon. In many ways, this code reflects the ideas of the French Revolution. For example, under this code no privileges based on birth and origin, all of the same degree in the eyes of the law. At the same code simply approached the old laws and customs of France so it is received by the people of France and the court system. In general, the code was moderate, well-organized and written in a concise, clear, and can be accepted, moreover easily understood. As a result, this code is not only applicable in France (the French civil law that applies now is almost similar to the Napoleonic Code) but also accepted also in other countries with the changes that are tailored to local needs. 

Political Napoleon constantly growing belief that he was the one who defended the French Revolution. However, in 1804 he also proclaim himself as Emperor of France. In addition, he lifted up his three brothers to the throne in several European countries. This step can not help but foster resentment on the part of the French Republic considers behavior was entirely a betrayal of the ideas and goals of the French Revolution. However, the main difficulty faced by Napoleon is a war with foreign countries. 

In 1802, in Amiens, Napoleon signed a peace treaty with England. It gives relief to the French wind within ten years is constantly at war. However, in the following year it broke the peace treaty and a long war with Britain and its allies began again. Although Napoleon's troops repeatedly won the battle on the mainland, the UK can not be defeated if only the fleet invincible. Unfortunately for Napoleon, the battle is improbable at Trafalgar in 1805, the British fleet a great victory. Therefore, monitoring and efficacy at sea is not in doubt. Despite the great victory of Napoleon (in Austerlitz against Austria and Russia) occurred six weeks after Trafalgar, it absolutely can not remove bitterness defeat in naval sector. 

In 1808 Napoleon made a great folly to involve France in a war that is long and uncertain Iiberia tip base on the peninsula, where the French troops stuck motionless for many years. However, Napoleon was the biggest mistake of his attack against Russia. In 1807 Napoleon met face to face with the Czar, and the Tilsit treaty they agreed to mobilize lasting friendship. However, conspiracy and alliance was gradually broken, and in June 1812 Napoleon led the giant army trampling Russian earth. 

The results of these actions have the same mind. Russian troops are generally shy away from dealing directly with the army fighting Napoleon, Napoleon because it can progress rapidly. In September Napoleon occupied Moscow. However, the Russians burned the city and mostly flat on the ground. After waiting five weeks in Moscow (with vain hopes Russia will offer peace), Napoleon finally decided to resign, but the decision was already too late. The combination of the Russian army blows and cruel winter, not inadequate supply of French forces resulted in the retreat into the backward movement of the helter-skelter. Less than ten percent of the giant French troops could get out of Russia alive earth. 

Other European countries, such as Austria and Prussia, aware they had a good chance to beat the French. They combine all the strength to face Napoleon, and at the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, Napoleon had another bitter blow to stagger. The following year he stopped and banished to Elba Island, a small island off the coast of Italy. 

In 1815 he escaped from Elba Island, returned to France, was well received and return to power. European powers immediately declare war and one hundred days after the seat again he was on the throne of power, Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo deadly. 

After Waterloo, Napoleon was imprisoned by the British at St. Helena, a small island in the southern Atlantic Ocean. This is where he breathed his last in 1821 from cancer attacks. 

Napoleon's military career presents an interesting paradox. The genius of movement tactics very fascinating, and when measured in terms of it alone, so he could be considered a most general of all time. But in the field of basic strategy he fell as a result make a big mistake, such as the invasion of Egypt and Russia. Errors strategy is so stupid that Napoleon dubbed unworthy of a first-class military leader. Is this the second assumption is not fair? I think not. Indeed, the size of a general greatness lies in its ability to circumvent the mistakes that led towards destruction. That sort of thing does not happen to Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane whose army was never defeated. Because ultimately defeated Napoleon in 1815, France has a smaller area than were ever owned by his in 1879, when the outbreak of the Revolution. 

Napoleon certainly an "egomaniac" and often considered as with Hitler. However, there are intricate differences between the two. If Hitler acted partly at the instigation of the biggest hidden ideology, Napoleon solely driven by opportunistic ambition and he had no sense doing a great slaughter and crazy genocide. In the reign of Napoleon, there is a sort of concentration camp like that belongs to Hitler. 

Extremely famous name Napoleon is very easy to trap people think he was a big influence excessively. Future short-term effect is large, probably larger than Alexander the Great, although not by Hitler. (According to estimates, about 500,000 French soldiers died in the Napoleonic wars, was approximately 800,000 Germans were killed during World War 2). By any measure, the destruction of Napoleon's actions less than what Hitler done. 

In regard to long-term effects, it seems more important than Hitler Napoleon, although much less important than Alexander the Great. Napoleon make extensive changes in the administrative system of France, but the French population only seventy-one per world population. In each incident, such administrative changes should be reviewed from the perspective of a reasonable angle. Influence on the French people is much less than the change in number of technological advances in the last two centuries. 

Many people say, Napoleonic times provide opportunities for consolidation and increasingly the established French bourgeoisie. In 1815, when the French monarchy eventually reorganized, this change is sustained and protected so well that the possibility of a return to the social patterns of the old order something that is completely impossible. However, the most important changes actually occur and composed before Napoleon. In 1799 when Napoleon held the reins of government every way possible in the direction of a return to the status quo is too late. However, apart from the ambitions of Napoleon himself was almost like a king, he does hold an important role in the spread of the idea of ​​revolution throughout Europe. 

Napoleon also brought as a result of the emergence of a large and widespread influence in the Latin American revolution. Invasion into Spain Spain thus weaken the grip of colonial rule in the colonies also loosened itself and ineffective. In a situation of de facto autonomy of these independence movements of Latin America began to erupt. 

Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo. 

Of all the steps deeds of Napoleon, the most important and most have a long term effect of it that is outside the plan and has nothing to do with Napoleon's own plan. 

In 1803, Napoleon sold the vast area of ​​the United States. He knew, belonged to the French in North America are hard to protect against attacks from England. In addition, he also needs money, the Louisiana land sales may be the buying and selling of land peacefully the largest in history and change the United States into a continent-sized country. It is hard to imagine what shape the United States without this Louisiana. It must be a completely different country to what we know today. And also worth doubt the United States can be a strong country without buying and selling these Louisiana. 

Napoleon, of course, not the only person who played a role and is responsible for sales. The American government clearly grasp the role anyway. However, the French offer to sell Louisiana was decided in the negotiations by one person. And people was Napoleon Bonaparte.

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