Sunday, September 28, 2014

1743-1794 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER

No comments :
Great French scientist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was a leading figure in the field of chemistry development. At the time of his birth in Paris in 1743, far behind the science chemistry than physics, mathematics and astronomy. A large number of self-discovery which itself has many discovered by chemistry experts, but none of the theories can be a handle that can summarize information separate. At that time distributed inconclusive sort of confidence that the water and air is a substance that is elementary. Even worse, any misunderstanding of the nature rather than the fire. Growing belief that time is that all objects combustion process contains substances speculation called "phlogiston," and that during the process of combustion, releasing flammable substance phlogiston stuff her into the air. 

In the period between the years 1754 - 1774, talented chemical experts such as Joseph Black, Joseph Priestley, Henry Cavendish and others have isolated the significance of gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. However, since these people accept the theory of phlogiston, they do not want to understand the nature or significance of chemical substances that have them find. Oxygen, for example, is seen as the air that all its phlogiston had been transferred. (As we know that the more perfect the wood chips burning in oxygen than in air, this may be easier to suck the air due to the phlogiston of the latest wood). Obviously, real progress in the field of chemistry can not occur before the main basics can be understood. 

The Lavoisier who successfully and handle the parts into the puzzle into a single unit that can be justified and find the right direction in theoretical chemistry. In the first stage, said Lavoisier, phlogiston theory completely misses: there is no such thing as phlogiston objects. The combustion process consists of a chemical combination of the oxygen burning stuff. Secondly, water is not elementary stuff at all but rather a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen. The air is not too elementary substance but consists primarily of a mixture of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. All these statements now seem obvious now, but can not yet well understood by Lavoisier's predecessors and contemporaries colleagues. Even after Lavoisier formulated the theory and apply to scientists, but there are still many chemists leaders who rejected the idea of this theory. However, the book is a brilliant Lavoisier Basic Principles of Chemistry (1789), so bright and crystal clear and put forward this hypothesis very convincing and outperformed the opinions of others, then the chemical experts quickly the younger generation to believe it. 

While proving that water and air are not chemical elements, Lavoisier also included in his list of substances that objects are considered fundamental and meaningful's rudimentary though it contains some errors, the list of today's modern chemical element is essentially an extension of what is already compiled Lavoiser it. 

Lavoiser have created the first scheme neatly arranged on the chemical system (in collaboration with Berthollet, Guyton de Fourcroi and Morveau). In Lavoisier's system (which is so basic grip until now) the chemical composition is described by its name. For the first time acceptance of a uniform chemical system is described that allows the chemists around the world can relate to each other in terms of their inventions. 

Lavoisier was the first to clearly put forward the principles of object storage amount of a chemical reaction without specific form: the reaction can set back the correct element in the substance of the original but there is nothing that is indestructible and the end result was the same weight as original components. Lovoisier beliefs about the importance of weighing precision chemical reactions involve change of chemistry into a science and at the same time prepare the way for many advances in the field of chemistry in the decades afterward. 

Lavoisier also contributed in the field of geological investigation, and also donated a convincing science in physiology. With experiments extremely carefully (in collaboration with Laplace), he was able to demonstrate that the physiological process of perspiration is basically the same with a slow combustion process. In other words, human and animal people draw their energy from organic combustion process slowly from within, with the use of oxygen in the air combination. This discovery alone - which is probably equivalent to the importance of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood - enough to seat Lavoisier's role in this blog sequence list. In addition, Lavoisier had a very important meaning thanks to the formulation of the theory of chemical undefeated as a starting point for chemical knowledge sector on the right track. He is generally regarded as the "founder of modern chemistry", and indeed he deserves that title. 
"List of Periodic Elements" which is basically a modern extension of the list of Lavoisier 

As well as some of the figures listed in this list, Lavoisier actually studied law at the time of adolescence. Although he can be a law degree and raised in an environment of legal experts but not once did he ever practiced his knowledge, though he was dabbling in the world of French administrative offices and public affairs services. But mainly he was at work in the Royal Academy of Sciences of France. He is also a member of Ferme Generale, an organization that is involved in the world of tax affairs. As a result, after the French Revolution in 1789, the revolutionary government is very suspect. 

Eventually he was arrested, along with twenty-seven members of the Ferme Generale. Court of revolution may not be too careful, but the inspection process goes quickly. One day dated May 8, 1794 twenty-seven people were tried, convicted and beheaded by guillotine. Lavoisier was able to continue living with his wife who always helped in intelligent investigation work. 

At the time of trial, there is a request that the case be separated Lavoisier, while promoting a service that has been done for society and science. The judge rejected a request to comment concise "Republic do not need a genius." Great mathematician Langrange snapped and defend his right: "It takes an instant to cut off a head, but not quite a hundred years to put it on the head in original position."

No comments :

Post a Comment

Thankyou for comment