Friday, September 26, 2014

1642-1727, Sir Isaac Newton

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Sir Isaac Newton, scientists largest and most influential in the world who ever lived, was born in Woolsthrope, England, right on Christmas day in 1642, coinciding with the year of Galileo's death. Like the Prophet Muhammad, he was born after his father died. In the boy he already showed real prowess in the field of mechanics and extremely deft use of his hands. Although children with a brilliant brain, in schools seemed reluctant and did not attract much attention. When stepping puberty, her mother out of school in the hope that their children can be a good farmer. Fortunately the mother could be persuaded, that the main talent lies not there. At age eighteen he entered the University of Cambridge. Newton is where the lightning absorb what was then known to science and mathematics and also quickly began to make their own investigations. Between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-seven years he had laid the foundations of the theory of knowledge, which in turn then change the world.

The mid 17th century was a period of seeding science. The discovery of the telescope near the beginning of the century, it has revolutionized the entire opinion about astrology. English philosopher Francis Bacon and the French philosopher Rene Descartes both call upon scientists across Europe to no longer rely on the authority of Aristotle, but to experiment and research on the basic point of departure and its own purposes. What is advanced by Bacon and Descartes, already practiced by the great Galileo. The use of binoculars, a new discovery for astronomy research by Newton have revolutionized the field investigation, and he did in the mechanics sector has resulted in what is now known as "Newton's laws of motion" of the first.

Other great scientists, such as William Harvey, discoverer of blood circulation affairs and governance inventor Johannes Kepler motion of planets around the sun, presents very basic information for the scholars. Even so, pure science is still a favorite of intellectuals, and still has not been proven --apabila used in teknologi-- that science can change the basic pattern of human life as predicted by Francis Bacon.

Although Copernicus and Galileo had kicked aside some stray assumptions about ancient knowledge and has served more genah understanding about the universe, but no one else who formulated the main ideas to be capable of turning a pile of carefully understanding landless and baseless as he put them in a theory that allows the development predictions more scientific. None other than Isaac Newton is the man who is able to present a collection of theories that neatly summarized and laid the first stone of modern science so that now the current fad of people.

Newton himself somewhat reluctantly publish and announce its findings. The basic idea was drawn up long before the year 1669, but many new theories known to the public for years afterward. Publishing first inventions was concerned penjungkir reversal old notion of things light. In a series of careful experiments, Newton discovered the fact that what is commonly called the "white light" is actually nothing more than a mixture of all the colors contained in the rainbow. And he was very careful analysis of the consequences of the law of reflection and refraction of light. Adhering to this law in 1668 her disposal-designed and well built the first reflecting telescope, binoculars model used by most investigators kemintang today. These findings, together with the results obtained in the field of optical experiments that have been diperagakannya, presented by him to the British royal research institute when he was twenty-nine years.

Newton's success in the field of optics have probably been sufficient to put Newton on the order list this book. Meanwhile there are still discoveries are of less importance in the field of pure mathematics and in the field of mechanics. Greatest offerings in the field of mathematics was his discovery of "integral calculus" that may be solved when he was twenty-three or twenty-four years. This discovery is the most important works in the field of modern mathematics. Not merely like a seed that grows thereof modern mathematical theory, but also furniture inevitable that without the advances of modern knowledge discovery that comes after is impossible. Even Newton did not do anything else, the discovery of "integral calculus" it alone is sufficient to lead to a high ladder in this list.

But Newton's discoveries is the most important in the field of mechanics, knowledge about the movement of some object. Galileo was the inventor of the first law of motion that describes an object if it is not influenced by outside forces. Of course, essentially all objects are influenced by outside forces and the most important issues in the matter of mechanics is how an object moves in that state. This problem is solved by Newton's second law of motion and the famous and the laws of physics can be considered as the most important classic. The second law (as described matcmatik dcngan equation F = ma) establishes that the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force divided by the mass of the object. Newton's second law to add to the famous third law of motion (asserts that in every action, such as physical strength, there is a reaction similar to that conflict) as well as the most famous discovery of scientific principles, the law of universal gravity. The fourth of the present law, if combined, would form a unified system applicable for the entire macro system mechanics, ranging from pergoyangan pendulum motion to the planets in orbit around the sun that can be controlled and predictable movements. Newton not only establishes the laws of mechanics, but he himself also using a mathematical calculus, and show that these fundamental formulas can be used for solving problems.

Newton's laws can and have been used in large-scale scientific fields as well as fields of designing various technical equipment. In his lifetime, the most dramatic pemraktekan is in the field of astronomy. In this sector, even Newton standing at the front. In 1678 Newton published his book famous mathematical principles of natural philosophy (usually summarized Principia only). In the book Newton put forward his theory of gravity and the laws of the laws of motion. He shows how these laws can be used to estimate the movements of the planets around the sun. The main problem is the astronomical movements how to estimate the exact position and movement kemintang star and planets, thus fully solved by Newton just a sambar. For his work that Newton is often considered the greatest astronomer of all the greatest.

What is our assessment of the importance of scholarly Newton? If we open the index open encyclopedia of science, we will encounter along with particulars regarding Newton's laws and its findings on two or three times more than the particulars of any scientist, too. Great scholars said that Leibniz did not close the Newton even been involved in a fierce argument: "Of all things relating to the mathematics of the world began to grow until the Newton, one that gives the best contribution." Also praise given by the great French scholar, Laplace: "book Principia Newton was far ahead of all the products of human genius in the world." And Langrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived. While Ernst Mach in his article in 1901 said, "All the mathematical problems that have been solved since the days of his life is the basis for the development of mechanics based on Newton's laws." This is probably the major discovery of the most intricate Newton: he discovered the container separation between fact and law, is able to describe some miracle but not a lot of help to make the allegations; he left us continuum laws are able to be used for physical problems within the scope of the secret and contains extremely broad possibilities to make the right guesses.

In a concise description like this, it is impossible to reveal in detail the discoveries of Newton. As a result, many of the works are somewhat less well known are forced to set aside even have an important meaning in terms of discoveries in the field of their own problems. Newton also made great contributions in the field of thermodynamics (the investigation of the heat) and in the field of acoustics (the science of sound). And he also who presents a clear explanation of how crystal physics principles of "preservation" of the motion that is not wasted and the "preservation" of the angular motion of something. The discovery of the queue if you want to be extended again: Newtonlah person who invented the binomial theorem in mathematics is very logical and justifiable. Want to add more? He also, none other than, the first to express the particulars conclusively the origin of the stars.

Well, now because this: Newton put it most thumbs scientists of all scientists who have ever lived on earth. Most sheen like an emerald in the center stack stone. Put so. However, there may be people who question what the reasons put Newton on the giant frontman politicians such as Alexander the Great or George Washington, and called ahead than major religious figures such as Prophet Jesus or Buddha Gautama. Why should it?

Consideration of me this way. It is true that political changes are important if not imperative. Even so, however, also generally the largest life hardly much difference between them in the days of five hundred years after Alexander died with them in the days of five hundred before Alexander emerged from his mother's womb. In other words, the way people live in the year 1500 AD is arguably similar to the way of life of the son of great-great-great-grandparent of their son in the year 1500 before Christ. Now, look from the point of development of science. In five of the last century, thanks to modern scientific discoveries, the way of life of everyday people have suffered a great revolution. The way to dress differently, eat different ways, ways of working and manifold. In fact, a relaxed way of life lazed was not at all similar to what is done one time in 1500 AD. Scientific discoveries have revolutionized not only the technology and economics, but also in terms of the total change of political, religious thought, art and philosophy. rare aspects of human life are still "squatting in place" not moved an inch even with the scientific revolution. The reason once again for the reason that so these-- reason why so many scientists and inventors of new ideas contained in this book list. Newton is not only the most intelligent brain smart brain in a long line, but at the same time he most influential figures in the development of scientific theory. That's why he got the honor to be seated in the order almost the top of many of the most influential men in human history. Newton's final breath in 1727, was buried in Westminster Abbey, the first scientist who gained wide respect it.

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